Smallpox Eraducation Programme Archive

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The CDC/USAID West Africa Smallpox Eradication/Measles Control Program (1966-1972) addressed smallpox eradication in a block of 20 independent countries of Western and Central Africa. Many were newly independent. They included 13 former French colonies (the Central African Republic, Chad, the Congo, Dahomey (became Benin in 1975), the Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire), Gabon, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Togo, and Upper Volta (became Burkina Faso in 1984)) in which French was the common language, and 5 countries where English was the common language (the Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone); Cameroon used both French and English. Equatorial Guinea joined the program after independence from Spain in 1968. Guinea-Bissau did not obtain independence until 1974, after the program had ended.

For more information on the CDC/AID West Africa program, see Smallpox and its Eradication, chapter 17.

Many of the documents relating to the CDC/AID West Africa Program were inadvertently destroyed during a government paperwork reduction initiative in the early 1980s. Surviving program-wide documentation and reports include the following:

1965 White House memoranda

Annual World Health Day Presidential Statement (7 Apr 1965). Preparatory memos and drafts

World Health Assembly statement (18 May 1965) "to show President Johnson's interest in international cooperation"
14 & 17 May 1965. Draft statement and amendment
18 May 1965. Press release

DA Henderson notes: At this time, USAID was proposing to make measles vaccine only available in 9 West African countries. The US commitment to smallpox came in November 1965 and had a different origin! Note also that the WHA pledge of assistance is only to help Latin America. A year later, when the key vote was taken in the Assembly, the US did not support the smallpox eradication program.


Don't miss these rare early documents!

1966. Memorandum. Tour report: West Africa, 18 November-17 December, 1965.
Henry M Gelfand. 11 Jan 1966

1966. Project for Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in 19 Countries of West Africa. Draft.
21 Jan 1966

1966. West Africa Smallpox Eradication/Measles Control Program. Surveillance Report No. 1. CDC #21415
Leo Morris. 1 Aug 1966

1966. Professional staff. Smallpox Eradication Program. 10 Aug 1966

1966. Regional Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Africa. (FY 1967 - 1971).
Document for press and public. Communicable Disease Center/Agency for International Development. Late 1966

1966. A program for smallpox eradication and measles control throughout West Africa. J Int Health 2, 24-33.
Gelfand HM, Henderson DA

1966. West Africa Smallpox Eradication/Measles Control Program. Surveillance Report No. 2. CDC #21416
Statistics Unit, Smallpox Eradication Program. 1 Sep 1966

1966. West Africa Smallpox Eradication/Measles Control Program Manual of Operations. CDC #21418
1 Oct 1966

1966. West Africa Smallpox Eradication/Measles Control Program. Surveillance Report No. 3. CDC #21417
Leo Morris. 1 Oct 1966

1966. Memo. Status Report #1
JD Millar (Chief, SEP) to Chief, CDC. 7 Dec 1966

1966. West Africa Smallpox Eradication/Measles Control Program. Surveillance Report No. 5.CDC #21409
Leo Morris. 15 Dec 1966

1966. Memo. Status Report #2
JD Millar (Chief, SEP) to Chief, CDC. 16 Dec 1966


1967. Memo. Status Report #3
JD Millar (Chief, SEP) to Chief, CDC. 18 Jan 1967

1967. Memorandum. Status report as of Feb 20, 1967.
George Lythcott. Feb 23 1967

1967. West Africa Smallpox Eradication/Measles Control Program. Surveillance Report No. 6. CDC #21410
Leo Morris. 17 Mar 1967

1967. Memo. Status Report #4
JD Millar (Chief, SEP) to Chief, CDC. 27 Mar 1967

1967. Regional project office and field monthly report no. 3. CDC #21412
12 Apr 1967

1967. West Africa Smallpox Eradication/Measles Control Program. Surveillance Report No. 7. CDC #21411
Leo Morris. 24 Apr 1967

1967. Regional project office and field monthly report no. 4. CDC #21413
12 May 1967

1967. The SEP Report. Volume I, Number 1. June 1967. CDC #21203

1967. The SEP Report. Volume I, Number 2. Sep 1967. CDC #21204

1967. The SEP Report. Volume I, Number 3. Nov 1967. CDC #21205


1968. Smallpox Surveillance Report: West and Central Africa. No. 3.
Reprinted from: WER 27:342-3. 05 Jul 1968

1968. The SEP Report. Volume II, Number 3. Jul 1968. CDC #21206

1968. Smallpox Surveillance Report: West and Central Africa. No. 7.
Reprinted from: WER 35:444-7. 30 Aug 1968

1968. The SEP Report. Volume II, Number 5. Oct 1968. CDC #21207

1968. Cultural resistance to smallpox vaccination. WHO/SE/68.4.
B Challenor


1969. The SEP Report. Volume III, Number 1. Feb 1969. CDC #21208

1969. Smallpox Surveillance Report: West and Central Africa—Surveillance and containment programme. Strategy of the smallpox eradication programme. No. 23.
Reprinted from: WER 18:297-303. 02 May 1969

1969. Joint WHO/USAID/NCDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969.

Selected papers. For a complete listing, see the Conference proceedings.

1969. The SEP Report. Volume III, Number 3. Oct 1969. CDC #21251

1969. Smallpox Surveillance Report: West and Central Africa. No. 34.
Reprinted from: WER 48:645-9. 28 Nov 1969


1970. The SEP Report. Volume IV, Number 4. Jul 1970

1970. Problems of border areas in West Africa. Extracted from WHO/SE/71.30 p52-8.
WH Foege; Inter-Regional Seminar on Surveillance and Assessment in Smallpox Eradication, New Delhi, India, 30 Nov-5 Dec 1970


1972. Persistence of facial scars of smallpox in West African populations. WHO/SE/72.34.
SO Foster

1972. Potency and stability characteristics of smallpox vaccine used in the smallpox eradication programme in Western and West-central Africa. WHO/SE/72.49.
A Bernstein, MZ Bierly Jr. International Symposium on Smallpox Vaccine, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, 11-13 Oct 1972. Also published in RH Regamey, H Cohen (eds). Symp Series Immunobiol Stand 19:157-165. 1973


1976. Monkeypox and white poxviruses in West and Central Africa. WHO/SE/76.78.
I Arita, DA Henderson

1979. Human monkeypox in West Africa. WER 2:12-3.
Case in Nigeria and area summary. 12 Jan 1979

1979. Smallpox Surveillance Report: Human monkeypox in West Africa. No. 146. Reprinted from: WER 16:123-5.
20 Apr 1979

Benin (Dahomey)

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1969. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 15 Apr 1976.


1969. Joint WHO/USAID/NCDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969.

The role of fetish practices in vaccination campaigns
GE Robbins. NCDC, The SEP Report, Vol IV, No 1. Proceedings - Part I
The surveillance system and methods used to improve reporting, II. Dahomey
M Yekpe. NCDC, The SEP Report, Vol IV, No 2. Proceedings - Part II
Assessment of vaccination coverage and smallpox in five areas of West Africa. A summary of terminal assessment results.
RH Henderson, H Davis, D Eddins. NCDC, The SEP Report, Vol IV, No 2. Proceedings - Part II9
Country Report: Dahomey. SE/69.18.
1969. Smallpox Surveillance Report: West and Central Africa. Recent outbreak: Dahomey. No. 34.
Reprinted from: WER 48:645-9. 28 Nov 1969
1969. Smallpox transmission in southern in Dahomey: A study of a village outbreak.
Henderson, RH. Yekpe, M. American Journal of Epidemiology 1969, 90(5): 423-428.
1975. Country Report: Benin. SE/WP/75.10.

Burkina Faso (Upper Volta)

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1968. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 15 Apr 1976.


1967. Assessment by market surveys—Upper Volta, Ivory Coast. SE/SR/67.2.
CDC; in: Smallpox eradication surveillance report. No. 2, Dec 1967 (not distributed)


1969. Smallpox Surveillance Report: Outbreaks: Mali/Upper Volta border. No. 20. Reprinted from: WER 12:205-11.
21 Mar 1969

1969. Joint WHO/USAID/NCDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969.


1975. Country Report: Upper Volta. SE/WP/75.8.

Cameroon

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1968. Importations during SEP: 1969. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 30 Jun 1977.


1969. Smallpox Surveillance Report: Outbreaks in non-endemic countries—Cameroon. No. 18. Reprinted from: WER 8:150-8.
Outbreak in January reported; first cases since June 1968; 21 Feb 1969

Joint WHO/USAID/NCDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969.

Central African Republic

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1963. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 30 Jun 1977.


1969. Joint WHO/USAID/NCDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969.

Chad

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1965. Importations during SEP: 1967, 1968. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 30 Jun 1977.


1967. Epidemiological Notes. Smallpox. WER 14:175.
Importation from Nigeria. First case reported since 1965. 7 Apr 1967

1967. Epidemiological Notes. Smallpox. WER 37:424.
First non-imported cases reported since 1965. 9 Sep 1967


1969. Joint WHO/USAID/NCDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969.

Congo

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1965. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 30 Jun 1977.

Congo, Dem. Rep. of (Zaire)

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1971. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 30 Jun 1977.


1968. Status of Smallpox Eradication Activities. Country: RD Congo. SE/68.11
Kinshasa, 19-26 November 1968

1969. Smallpox Surveillance Report. No. 31. Reprinted from: WER 39:557-61.
26 Sep 1969


1971. Smallpox Surveillance Report. No. 61. Reprinted from: WER 33:348-52.
13 Aug 1971


1972. Smallpox Surveillance Report. No. 69. Reprinted from: WER 10:109-13.
10 Mar 1972

Equatorial Guinea

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1960. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 30 Jun 1977.

Gabon

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1965. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 30 Jun 1977.


1969. Joint WHO/USAID/NCDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969.

The Gambia

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1966. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 15 Apr 1976.


1969. Joint WHO/USAID/NCDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969.


1975. Country Report: The Gambia. SE/WP/75.11.

Ghana

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1967. Importations during SEP: 1968. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 15 Apr 1976.


1964. Smallpox eradication programme in Ghana. . Smallpox/WP/20.
FC Grant; Expert Committee on Smallpox, Geneva, 14-20 January 1964


1965. Variolation in Ghana..
In: Scott D, 1965. Epidemic Disease in Ghana 1901-1960, London, Oxford University Press, pp 83-4.


1969. Smallpox Surveillance Report: Outbreaks in non-endemic countries—Ghana. No. 18. Reprinted from: WER 8:150-8.
Outbreak in Dec-Jan 1968 reported; first cases since July 1968. 21 Feb 1969

1969. Joint WHO/USAID/NCDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969.

1969. Field investigation of an outbreak of smallpox at Bawku, Ghana: May- October 1967. WHO/SE/69.8.
V de Sario


1975. Country Report: Ghana. SE/WP/75.12.

Guinea

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1968. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 15 Apr 1976.


1969. Joint WHO/USAID/NCDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969.

1975. Country Report: Guinea. SE/WP/75.1.

1977. Smallpox in the Republic of Guinea, West Africa: I. History and Epidemiology
JG Breman, AB Alécaut, JM Lane. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1977 26(4): 756 - 764


Guinea-Bissau


Last endemic case of smallpox: 1957. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 15 Apr 1976.

1975. Country Report: Guinea-Bissau. SE/WP/75.15.

Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire)

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1966. Importations during SEP: 1967. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 15 Apr 1976.


1967. Epidemiological Notes. Smallpox. WER 14:175.
Smallpox death reported; first case since 1965. 7 Apr 1967

1967. Assessment by market surveys—Upper Volta, Ivory Coast. SE/SR/67.2.
CDC; in: Smallpox eradication surveillance report. No. 2, Dec 1967 (not distributed)


1969. Smallpox eradication in Africa: Principles for action in the maintenance phase.
B Binson. Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969. NCDC, The SEP Report, Vol IV, No 2. Proceedings - Part II

1975. Country Report: Ivory Coast. SE/WP/75.2.

Liberia

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1968. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 15 Apr 1976.


1969. Joint WHO/USAID/NCDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969.


1971. The SEP Report. Special report: Human infection with monkeypox: Liberia and Sierra Leone. Volume V, Number 1
Feb 1971


1975. Country Report: Liberia. SE/WP/75.9

Mali

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1968. Importations during SEP: 1969. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 15 Apr 1976.


1969. Smallpox Surveillance Report: Outbreaks: Mali/Upper Volta border. No. 20. Reprinted from: WER 12:205-11.
21 Mar 1969

1969. Joint WHO/USAID/NCDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969.


1975. Country Report: Mali. SE/WP/75.3.

Mauritania

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1962. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 15 Apr 1976.

1975. Country Report: Mauritania. SE/WP/75.13.

Niger

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1968. Importations during SEP: 1969. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 15 Apr 1976.


1969. Assessment of Phase I of the Smallpox Eradication/Measles Control Program of Niger.
Ralph Henderson. 8-22 Jan 1969

1969. Notes from Niger
Dr Christopher D’Amanda's personal account of taking part in the assessment above. Written in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta) in 1969; edited in Philadelphia 2006 for the 40th reunion of the CDC West Africa Smallpox/Measles Program.

1969. Joint WHO/USAID/NCDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969.


1975. Country Report: Niger. SE/WP/75.14.

Nigeria

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1970. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 15 Apr 1976.


1967. A pilot assessment project—Kano, Nigeria. SE/SR/67.2.
EA Smith, PO Adeoye, CJ Jones; in: Smallpox eradication surveillance report. No. 2, Dec 1967 (not distributed)


1968. Faith Tabernacle smallpox epidemic, Abakaliki, Nigeria. WHO/SE/68.3.
D Thompson W Foege

1968. Characteristics of an epidemic of smallpox, Gerere Hamlet, Nigeria--1968. WHO/SE/68.5.
J Pifer CL Adeoye


1969. Joint WHO/USAID/NCDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969.


1970. Smallpox Surveillance Report. No. 43. Reprinted from: WER 26:278-82.
26 Jun 1970

1970. Recurrence of smallpox in Nigeria 1970. Extracted from WHO/SE/71.30 p45-51.
WH Foege; Inter-Regional Seminar on Surveillance and Assessment in Smallpox Eradication, New Delhi, India, 30 Nov-5 Dec 1970


1975. Country Report: Nigeria. SE/WP/75.4.


1976. Freedom from smallpox. Case histories on four countries where cases were missed for extended periods. WHO/SE/76.85.
DA Henderson


1979. Human monkeypox in West Africa. WER 79:12-3.
Case in Nigeria and area summary. 20 Apr 1979

1979. Résultats préliminaires d'une enquête sur un cas de monkeypox au Nigéria. SME/79.3. Need English version
AI Gromyko, M Daramola

Senegal

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1963. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 15 Apr 1976.


1969. Joint WHO/USAID/NCDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969.


1975. Country Report: Senegal. SE/WP/75.5.

Sierra Leone

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1969. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 15 Apr 1976.


1969. Smallpox Surveillance Report: Smallpox outbreak—Sierra Leone . No. 17. Reprinted from: WER 6:113-6.
07 Feb 1969

1969. Joint WHO/USAID/NCDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969.


1970. The Smallpox Eradication Programme in Sierra Leone. SE/WP/70.7 (same as WHO/SE/71.30 p 32-44).
EC Cummings; Inter-regional Seminar on Surveillance and Assessment in Smallpox Eradication, New Delhi, India, 30 Nov-5 Dec 1970


1971. The SEP Report. Special report: Human infection with monkeypox: Liberia and Sierra Leone. Volume V, Number 1
Feb 1971

1971. Smallpox in Sierra Leone I. Epidemiology
DR Hopkins, JM Lane, EC Cummings, JD Millar Am J Trop Med Hyg 1971 20(5): 689 - 696

1971. Smallpox in Sierra Leone II. The 1968–69 Eradication Program
DR Hopkins, JM Lane, EC Cummings, JN Thornton, JD Millar. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1971 20(5): 697 - 704


1975. Country Report: Sierra Leone. SE/WP/75.6.

Togo

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1969. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 15 Apr 1976.


1969. Joint WHO/USAID/NCDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969.

1969. "Negative" epidemiological enquiries within the framework of the smallpox eradication programme. WHO/SE/69.12.
GF Glokpor


1970. Epidemiological investigations - Smallpox Eradication Programme in Togo - 1969. WHO/SE/70.21.
GF Glokpor, AN Agle


1975. Country Report: Togo. SE/WP/75.7.