Smallpox Eraducation  Archives

Browse > By Country > Africa — Western and Central

Summary

The US Communicable Disease Center (CDC, now the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) conducted a smallpox eradication/measles control program in Western and Central Africa. It began late in 1966, concluding in 1972, and was funded by the US Agency for International Development. The program was coordinated with WHO’s eradication programme through its Regional Office for Africa (AFRO).

Additional information:

Smallpox and Its Eradication, Chapter 17
Program development and surveillance reports: Browse/CDC West and Central Africa


Country Last endemic case Importations during SEP Country Last endemic case Importations during SEP
Benin (Dahomey)* 1969 None post-1969 Guinea 1968 None post-1968
Burkina Faso (Upper Volta)** 1968 None post-1958 Guinea-Bissau 1957 None
Cameroon 1968 1969 Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire) 1966 1967
Central African Republic 1963 None Liberia 1968 None post-1968
Chad 1965 1967,1968 Mali 1968 1969
Congo 1965 None Mauritania 1962 None
Congo, Dem Rep (Zaire)*** 1971 None post-1971 Niger 1968 1969
Equatorial Guinea 1960 None Nigeria 1970 None post-1970
Gabon 1965 None Senegal 1963 None
Gambia 1966 None Sierra Leone 1969 None
Ghana 1967 1968 post-1969 Togo 1969 None post-1969

Benin (Dahomey), Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire), Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo were certified as smallpox-free by an International Commission on 15 Apr 1976 (AFR/Smallpox/80).

Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Dem. Rep. of Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon were certified as smallpox-free by an International Commission on 30 Jun 1977 (AFR/Smallpox/86).


* Dahomey was renamed Benin in 1975.

** Upper Volta was renamed Burkina Faso in 1984.

*** The Democratic Republic of the Congo was renamed Zaire in 1971, and changed back to the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1997.


Year Title Authors Source
1966 Mass preventive medicine: A program for smallpox eradication and measles control throughout West Africa Gelfand HM, Henderson J Int Health 1966 2(1) Fall:24-33
1969 Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
All Conference reports
PROCEEDINGS. Part I CDC, SEP Report IV(1):1-66 [10.5 MB] PDF
Development and status of the Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control Programme in West Africa Millar JD CDC, SEP Report IV(1):21-27a PDF
Epidemiology of smallpox in West and Central Africa Foege WH CDC, SEP Report IV(1):29-35a PDF
PROCEEDINGS. Part II CDC, SEP Report IV(2):1-125 [17.9MB] PDF
Assessment of surveillance systems in West Africa Henderson RH CDC, SEP Report IV(2):69-72 PDF
Intercountry cooperation and coordination. An overview Lythcott GI CDC, SEP Report IV(2):76-7 PDF
Proposals for intercountry coordination Tchellé L CDC, SEP Report IV(2):78-9 PDF
Benefits of intercountry coordination Agle AN CDC, SEP Report IV(2):82 PDF
Smallpox eradication in Africa: Principles for action in the maintenance phaseBinson BCDC, SEP Report IV(2):177-80PDF
A review of West African operations: Methods and tactics Hicks JW CDC, SEP Report IV(2):192-8 PDF
Summary: Programme operations Henderson DA CDC, SEP Report IV(2):224-5 PDF
1969 Status of eradication of smallpox (and control of measles) in West and Central Africa Millar JD, Foege WH J Infect Dis 1969 120(6):725-32
1971 Cultural resistance to smallpox vaccination in West Africa Challenor BD J Trop Med Hyg 1971 74(3):57-9
1972 Potency and stability characteristics of smallpox vaccine used in the smallpox eradication programme in Western and West-central Africa
International Symposium on Smallpox Vaccine, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, 11-13 Oct 1972
Bernstein A, Bierly MZ Jr WHO/SE/72.49
RH Regamey, H Cohen (eds). Symp Series Immunobiol Stand 1973 19:157-165
PDF
1975 Smallpox eradication in West and Central Africa Foege WH, Millar JD, Henderson DA Bull World Health Organ 1975 52(2):209-22 OPEN
1976 Monkeypox and white poxviruses in West and Central Africa Arita I, Henderson DA WHO/SE/76.78
Bull World Health Organ 1976 53(4): 347-353
PDF
OPEN
1998Commentary: Smallpox eradication in west and central Africa revisitedFoege WHBull World Health Organ 1998 76(3):233-5OPEN
2011 Lessons and innovations from the West and Central African Smallpox Eradication Program
Symposium: Smallpox Eradication after 30 Years: Lessons, Legacies and Innovations. Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 24-27 Aug 2010
Foege WH Vaccine 2011 29(Suppl 4):D10-D12

Dahomey (Benin)

Year Title Authors Source
1969 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 34, 28 Nov 1969
Outbreak: Dahomey
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 44(48):645-9 PDF
1969 Smallpox transmission in southern in Dahomey: A study of a village outbreak. Henderson RH, Yekpe M Am J Epidemiol 1969 90(5):423-428
1970 Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
The role of fetish practices in vaccination campaigns Robbins GE CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(1): 62-64 PDF
The surveillance system and methods used to improve reporting. II. Dahomey Yekpe M CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2): 60-62 PDF
Assessment of vaccination coverage and smallpox in five areas of West Africa. A summary of terminal assessment results Henderson RH, Davis H, Eddins D CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2): 109-132 PDF
Country report: Dahomey SE/69.18 PDF
1973 Assessment of vaccination coverage, vaccination scar rates, and smallpox scarring in five areas of West Africa [Northern Nigeria, Western Nigeria, Niger, Dahomey, Togo] Henderson RH, Davis H, Eddins DL, Foege WH Bull World Health Organ 1973 48(2):183-94 OPEN
1975 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Western Africa: Benin SE/WP/75.10 PDF
1976 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Upper Volta AFR/Smallpox/80

Upper Volta (Burkina Faso)

Year Title Authors Source
1964 Response of Volta children to jet inoculation of combined live measles, smallpox and yellow fever vaccines Meyer Jr HM, Hostetler Jr DD, Bernheim BC, Rogers NG, Lambin P, Chassary A, Labusquière R, Smadel JE Bull World Health Organ 1964 30:783-794 OPEN
1967 Standardization and mass application of combined live measles-smallpox vaccine in Upper Volta Kalabus F, Sansarricq H, Lambin P, Proulx J, Hillman MR Am J Epidemiol 1967 86(1):93-111
1967 Smallpox Surveillance Report Draft 2 Dec 1967. (Prepared but not distributed)
Assessment by market surveys: Upper Volta, Ivory Coast
Smallpox unit, WHO SE/SR/67.2:18-19 PDF
1969 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 20: 21 Mar 1969
Outbreaks: Mali/Upper Volta border
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 12:205-11 PDF
1970 Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Persistence of smallpox in remote unvaccinated villages. Imperato P, Sow O, LaPointe M, Vastine D, Leonard TA CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(1): 47-51 PDF
Experiences in Upper Volta with intercountry coordination of containment activities. d'Amanda C CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2): 80-81 PDF
Country Report: Upper Volta. SE/69.25 PDF
1975 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Western Africa: Upper Volta SE/WP/75.8 PDF
1976 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Upper Volta AFR/Smallpox/80
1977 [A year of utilization of a kit for the surveillance of cholera, yellow fever and smallpox in Upper Volta]. French Saliou P, Rey JL, Breman JG, Stoeckel P Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 1977 70(5):544-52

Cameroon

Year Title Authors Source
1969 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 18, 21 Feb 1969
Outbreak: Cameroon
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 44(8):150-8 PDF
1970 Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Investigation of imported cases during the Smallpox Eradication Programme in Cameroon Delas A CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):183-187 PDF
Country Report: Cameroon SE/69.10 PDF
1977 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Central Africa: United Republic of Cameroon SE/CAC/77.2
1977 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Rwanda, Zaire AFR/Smallpox/86

Central African Republic

Year Title Authors Source
1970 Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Assessment in the Central African Republic Ewen N CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):103-108 PDF
Country Report: Central African Republic SE/69-17 PDF
1977 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Central Africa: Central African Republic SE/CAC/77.4
1977 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Central Africa: Burundi SE/CAC/77.1
1977 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Rwanda, Zaire AFR/Smallpox/86

Chad

Year Title Authors Source
1967 WER. Importation. From Nigeria. First case reported since 1965 WHO WER 7 Apr 1967 42(14):175 PDF
1967 WER. Outbreak. From importation. 81 cases, 21 deaths (26%) WHO WER 15 Sep 1967 42(37):424 PDF
1970 Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Advantages and disadvantages of specialized and multi-purpose medical teams Roux JM CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):208-212 PDF
Country Report: Chad SE/69.15 PDF
1977 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Central Africa: Chad SE/CAC/77.8
1977 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Rwanda, Zaire AFR/Smallpox/86

Congo

Year Title Authors Source
1977 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Central Africa: Congo SE/CAC/77.3
1977 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Rwanda, Zaire AFR/Smallpox/86

Congo, Democratic Republic (Zaire)

Year Title Authors Source
1968 Status of smallpox eradication activities: DR Congo
Inter-Country Smallpox Eradication Seminar. Kinshasa, DR Congo [Zaire], 19-26 November 1968
SE/68.11 PDF
1969 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 31, 26 Sep 1969 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 44(39):557-61 PDF
1971 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 61, 13 Aug 1971 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 46(33):348-52 PDF
1971 [The smallpox eradication campaign in the Republic of Zaire]. French Lekie R Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 1971 64(5):761-75
1972 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 69, 10 Mar 1972 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 47(10):109-13 PDF
1977 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Central Africa: Zaire SE/CAC/77.9
1977 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Rwanda, Zaire AFR/Smallpox/86
2011 Smallpox and its eradication in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Lessons learned
Symposium: Smallpox Eradication after 30 Years: Lessons, Legacies and Innovations, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. 24-27 Aug 2010, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Muyembe-Tamfum J-J, Mulembakani P, Lekie RB, Szczeniowski M, Ježek Z, Doshi R, Hoff N, Rimoin AW Vaccine 2011 29(Suppl 4):D13-D18

Equatorial Guinea

Year Title Authors Source
1977 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Central Africa: Equatorial Guinea SE/CAC/77.6
1977 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Rwanda, Zaire AFR/Smallpox/86

Gabon

Year Title Authors Source
1970 Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Country Report: Gabon SE/69.14 PDF
1977 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Central Africa: Gabon SE/CAC/77.5

The Gambia

Year Title Authors Source
1970 Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Programme costs as related to vaccinations, morbidity and mortality in The Gambia N'Dow PJ CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):221-223 PDF
Country Report: The Gambia SE/69.16 PDF
1975 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Western Africa: Gambia SE/WP/75.11 PDF
1976 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Upper Volta AFR/Smallpox/80

Ghana

Year Title Authors Source
1964 Smallpox eradication programme in Ghana
Expert Committee on Smallpox, Geneva, 14-20 January 1964
Grant FC Smallpox/WP.20 PDF
1965 Variolation in Ghana Scott D Epidemic Disease in Ghana 1901-1960, London, Oxford Univ Press, 1965 pp 83-4 PDF
1969 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 18, 21 Feb 1969
Outbreak: Ghana
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 44(8):150-8 PDF
1969 Field investigation of an outbreak of smallpox at Bawku, Ghana: May-October 1967 de Sario V WHO/SE/69.8
East Afr Med J 1970 47(10):524-35
PDF
1970 Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Surveillance techniques for detecting importations of smallpox. Grant FC CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):66-68 PDF
Country Report: Ghana SE/69.9 PDF
1975 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Western Africa: Ghana SE/WP/75.12 PDF
1976 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Upper Volta AFR/Smallpox/80

Guinea

Year Title Authors Source
1970 Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Execution of smallpox eradication-measles control programme in Guinea Barry El-Hadj A CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(1):36-40 PDF
Concurrent assessment during the smallpox eradication/measles control programme in Guinea - December 1967 through February 1969 Alécaut B, Breman JG, Famba MK CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):90-96 PDF
Country Report: Guinea SE/69.21 PDF
1975 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Western Africa: Republic of Guinea SE/WP/75.1 PDF
1976 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Upper Volta AFR/Smallpox/80
1977 Smallpox in the Republic of Guinea, West Africa: I. History and Epidemiology Breman JG, Alécaut AB, Lane JM Am J Trop Med Hyg 1977 26(4):756-764
1977 Smallpox in the Republic of Guinea, West Africa. II. Eradication using mobile teams Breman JG, Alécaut AB, Malberg DR, Charter RS, Lane JM Am J Trop Med Hyg 1977 26(4):765-74

Guinea-Bissau

Year Title Authors Source
1975 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Western Africa: Republic of Guinea-Bissau SE/WP/75.15 PDF
1976 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Upper Volta AFR/Smallpox/80

Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire)

Year Title Authors Source
1967 WER. Smallpox death. First case reported since 1965 WHO WER 7 Apr 1967 42(14):175 PDF
1967 Smallpox Surveillance Report Draft 2 Dec 1967. (Prepared but not distributed)
Assessment by market surveys: Upper Volta, Ivory Coast
Smallpox unit, WHO SE/SR/67.2:18-19 PDF
1970 Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Smallpox eradication in Africa: Principles for action in the maintenance phase Binson B CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):177-180 PDF
1975 Evaluation of a measles-smallpox vaccination campaign by a sero-epidemiologic method Breman JG, Coffi E, Bomba-Ire R, Foster SO, Herrmann KL Am J Epidemiol 1975 102(6):564-571
1975 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Western Africa: Republic of Ivory Coast SE/WP/75.2 PDF
1976 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Upper Volta AFR/Smallpox/80

Liberia

Year Title Authors Source
1970 Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Country Report: Liberia SE/69.13 PDF
1971 Special report: Human infection with monkeypox: Liberia and Sierra Leone CDC, SEP Report V(1) PDF
1975 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Western Africa: Liberia SE/WP/75.9 PDF
1976 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Upper Volta AFR/Smallpox/80

Mali

Year Title Authors Source
1968 Traditional beliefs about smallpox and its treatment in the Republic of Mali Imperato PJ, Traoré D J Trop Med Hyg 1968 71(9):224-8
1968 The practice of variolation among the Songhai of Mali Imperato P Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1968 62(6)863-73
1969 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 20, 21 Mar 1969
Outbreaks: Mali/Upper Volta border
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 44(12):205-11 PDF
1970 Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Persistence of smallpox in remote unvaccinated villages. Imperato P, Sow O, LaPointe M, Vastine D, Leonard TA CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(1):47-51 PDF
Role of migrant groups in the transmission of smallpox in Mali. Sow O CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(1):55-56 PDF
Country Report: Mali SE/WP/69.23 PDF
1970 The transmission pattern of smallpox in a West African school population Imperato PJ J Trop Pediatr 1970 16(4):204-9
1971 The transmission pattern of smallpox in Eastern Mali Fofana B, Imperato PJ, Nedvideck J Acta Trop 1971 28(2):175-9
1972 The epidemiology of smallpox in the Republic of Mali Imperato PJ, Sow O, Fofana B Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1972 66(1):176-82
1973 The persistence of smallpox in remote unvaccinated villages during eradication program activities Imperato PJ, Sow O, Fofana B Acta Trop 1973 30(4):261-8
1974 Observations on variolation practices in Mali Imperato P Trop Geogr Med 1974 26(4)429-40
1975 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Western Africa: Republic of Mali SE/WP/75.3 PDF
1976 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Upper Volta AFR/Smallpox/80

Mauritania

Year Title Authors Source
1975 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Western Africa: Mauritania SE/WP/75.13 PDF
1976 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Upper Volta AFR/Smallpox/80

Niger

Year Title Authors Source
1969 Assessment of Phase I of the Smallpox Eradication/Measles Control Program of Niger: 8-22 Jan 1969 Henderson RH CDC/USAID West Africa Smallpox Eradication/Measles Control Program PDF
– See also Notes from Niger (1969), a personal account of participation in the assessment above d'Amanda C C d'Amanda personal papers PDF
1970 WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
A study of smallpox in the Tuaregs in Tahoua, Niger Masso AR CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(1):57-58 PDF
The surveillance system and methods used to improve reporting, III. Niger Alzouma I CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):63-65 PDF
Proposals for intercountry coordination Tchellé L CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):78-79 PDF
Assessment of vaccination coverage and smallpox in five areas of West Africa. A summary of terminal assessment results Henderson RH, Davis H, Eddins D CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):109-132 PDF
Maintenance of smallpox immunity among the nomads Alzouma I CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):181-182 PDF
Country Report: Niger SE/69.19 PDF
1973 Assessment of vaccination coverage, vaccination scar rates, and smallpox scarring in five areas of West Africa [Northern Nigeria, Western Nigeria, Niger, Dahomey, Togo] Henderson RH, Davis H, Eddins DL, Foege WH Bull World Health Organ 1973 48(2):183-94 OPEN
1975 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Western Africa: Niger SE/WP/75.14 PDF
1976 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Upper Volta AFR/Smallpox/80


Nigeria

Year Title Authors Source
1965 A comparison of two methods of vaccination against smallpox in Nigeria Snell PH West Afr Med J 1965 14(6):233-5 (1)
1967 Smallpox Surveillance Report Draft 2 Dec 1967. (Prepared but not distributed)
A pilot assessment project—Kano, Nigeria
Smith EA, Adeoye PO, Jones CJ; Smallpox unit, WHO SE/SR/67.2:14-17 PDF
1967 Simultaneous administration of live measles virus vaccine and smallpox vaccine Sherman PM, Hendrickse RG, Montefiore D, Peradze T, Coker G Br Med J 1967 2(5553):672-6 OPEN
1968 Faith Tabernacle smallpox epidemic, Abakaliki, Nigeria Thompson D, Foege WH WHO/SE/68.3 PDF
1968 Characteristics of an epidemic of smallpox, Gerere Hamlet, Nigeria—1968 Pifer J, Adeoye CL WHO/SE/68.5 PDF
1969 [Organization of operations for single-stage smallpox vaccination of the population of one of the regions of western Nigeria]. Russian Lugovskiĭ IP Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1969 46(1):93-5
1970 Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
The value of surveillance newsletters Smith EA, Foster SO CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):53-57 PDF
Concurrent assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Programme in Mid-West State, Nigeria Mebitaghan IS, Okoh PA CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):97-102 PDF
Assessment of vaccination coverage and smallpox in five areas of West Africa. A summary of terminal assessment results Henderson RH, Davis H, Eddins D CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):109-132 PDF
The value, efficiency, and limitations of collecting points in mass vaccination programmes Smith EA, Foster SO, Adetosoye JI, Mebitaghan IS, Adeoye PO, Pifer JM CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):199-204 PDF
Country Report: Nigeria SE/69.22 PDF
Country Report: Nigeria (Northern States) SE/69.24 PDF
1970 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 43, 26 Jun 1970
Outbreak: Nigeria
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 45(26):278-82 PDF
1970 Recurrence of smallpox in Nigeria 1970
Inter-Regional Seminar on Surveillance and Assessment in Smallpox Eradication, New Delhi, India, 30 Nov-5 Dec 1970
Foege WH WHO/SE/71.30:45-51 PDF
1971 Selective epidemiologic control in smallpox eradication Foege WH, Millar JD, Lane JM Am J Epidemiol 1971 94(4):311-315
1973 Assessment of vaccination coverage, vaccination scar rates, and smallpox scarring in five areas of West Africa [Northern Nigeria, Western Nigeria, Niger, Dahomey, Togo] Henderson RH, Davis H, Eddins DL, Foege WH Bull World Health Organ 1973 48(2):183-94 OPEN
1973 Simultaneous administration of smallpox, measles, yellow fever, and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus antigens to Nigerian children Ruben FL, Smith EA, Foster SO, Casey HL, Pifer JM, Wallace RB, Atta AI, Jones WL, Arnold RB, Teller BE, Shaikh ZQ, Lourie B, Eddins DL, Doko SM, Foege WH Bull World Health Organ 1973 48(2):175-81 OPEN
1975 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Western Africa: Nigeria SE/WP/75.4 PDF
1976 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Upper Volta AFR/Smallpox/80
1976 Freedom from smallpox. Case histories on four countries where cases were missed for extended periods [Brazil, Botswana, Indonesia, Nigeria] Henderson DA WHO/SE/76.85 PDF
1979 Human monkeypox in West Africa
Case in Nigeria and area summary
WHO WER 12 Jan 1979 2:12-13 PDF
1979 [Preliminary results of an investigation into a case of monkeypox in Nigeria]. French Gromyko AI, Daramola M SME/79.3 PDF

Senegal

Year Title Authors Source
1970 Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Country Report: Senegal SE/69.11 PDF
1975 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Western Africa: Senegal SE/WP/75.5 PDF
1976 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Upper Volta AFR/Smallpox/80

Sierra Leone

Year Title Authors Source
1969 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 17, 7 Feb 1969
Outbreak: Sierra Leone
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 44(6):113-6 PDF
1970 Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Results of investigation and control programme in Sierra Leone Cummings EC, Hopkins DR, Thornton JN CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(1):41-44 PDF
Associated with exposure at a funeral ceremony: Smallpox outbreak, Yawei Chiefdom, Kailahun District, Sierra Leone Cummings EC, Hopkins DR, Thornton JN CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(1):52-54 PDF
Country Report: Sierra Leone SE/69.8 PDF
1970 The Smallpox Eradication Programme in Sierra Leone
Inter-regional Seminar on Surveillance and Assessment in Smallpox Eradication, New Delhi, India, 30 Nov-5 Dec 1970
Cummings EC WHO/SE/71.30: 32-44 PDF
1971 Special report: Human infection with monkeypox: Liberia and Sierra Leone Cummings EC CDC, SEP Report V(1) PDF
1971 Two funeral-associated smallpox outbreaks in Sierra Leone Hopkins DR, Lane JM, Cummings EC, Millar JD Am J Epidemiol 1971 94(4):341-7
1971 Smallpox in Sierra Leone. I. Epidemiology Hopkins DR, Lane JM, Cummings EC, Millar JD Am J Trop Med Hyg 1971 20(5):689-96
1971 Smallpox in Sierra Leone. II. The 1968-69 eradication program Hopkins DR, Lane JM, Cummings EC, Thornton JN, Millar JD Am J Trop Med Hyg 1971 20(5):697-704
1975 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Western Africa: Sierra Leone SE/WP/75.6 PDF
1976 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Upper Volta AFR/Smallpox/80

Togo

Year Title Authors Source
1969 "Negative" epidemiological enquiries within the framework of the smallpox eradication programme Glokpor GF WHO/SE/69.12 PDF
1970 Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Use of house-to-house surveys in finding smallpox cases Agle AN CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(1):45-46 PDF
The role of fetish practices in vaccination campaigns Robbins GE CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(1):62-64 PDF
The surveillance system and methods used to improve reporting, I. Togo Agbodjan LP CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):58-69 PDF
Benefits of intercountry coordination Agle AN CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):82 PDF
Assessment of vaccination coverage and smallpox in five areas of West Africa. A summary of terminal assessment results Henderson RH, Davis H, Eddins D CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):109-132 PDF
Comparative advantages of jet injectors and bifurcated needles Glokpor GP CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):205-207 PDF
Country Report: Togo SE/69.12 PDF
1970 Epidemiological investigations—Smallpox Eradication Programme in Togo - 1969 Glokpor GF, Agle AN WHO/SE/70.21 PDF
1973 Assessment of vaccination coverage, vaccination scar rates, and smallpox scarring in five areas of West Africa [Northern Nigeria, Western Nigeria, Niger, Dahomey, Togo] Henderson RH, Davis H, Eddins DL, Foege WH Bull World Health Organ 1973 48(2):183-94 OPEN
1975 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Western Africa: Togo SE/WP/75.7 PDF
1976 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication: Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Upper Volta AFR/Smallpox/80