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Vaccination instruments used prior to bifurcated needle Ped-O-Jet® vaccine injector Freeze-dried vaccine, rotary lancet, and bifurcated needles Variolator's kit

Vaccination: Techniques


Principles and procedures:

Vaccination: Technical Considerations (Section III)
In: Handbook for Smallpox Eradication Programmes in Endemic Areas (1st revision)
SEP unit, WHO. 1967. SE/67/5 Rev 1 PDF

Manuscript submitted for Rosenau, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 10th ed. Henderson DA. 1971, WHO/SE/71.28 PDF

Year Title Authors Source
1959 Smallpox vaccination technique Ahmad N WHO/Smallpox/9 PDF
1960 Smallpox vaccine and vaccination technique Ahmad N SEA/SPX/Conf 6
1965 A comparison of two methods of vaccination against smallpox in Nigeria Snell PH West Afr Med J 1965 14(6):233-5
1966-67 Sterilization of jet injectors. Memorandum, 2 Nov 1966. Revised, 31 May 1967 Millar JD PDF
1967 Smallpox Surveillance Report Draft 2 Dec 1967. (Prepared but not distributed)
Field studies with the bifurcated needle
Rahman A SE/SR/67.2:21-2 PDF
1968 Instructions for smallpox vaccination with bifurcated needle. Revised Smallpox unit, WHO SE/68.2 Rev 1 PDF
1968 Studies of smallpox vaccination by bifurcated needles in Kenya Ladnyi ID SE/68.7 PDF
1969 Smallpox vaccination by intradermal jet injection. I. Introduction, background and results of pilot studies Millar JD, Roberto RR, Wulff H, Wenner HA, Henderson DA Bull World Health Organ 1969 41(6):749-60 OPEN
1969 Smallpox vaccination by intradermal jet injection. 2. Cutaneous and serological responses to primary vaccination in children Roberto RR, Wulff H, Millar JD Bull World Health Organ 1969 41(6):761-9 OPEN
1969 Smallpox vaccination by intradermal jet injection. 3. Evaluation in a well-vaccinated population Neff JM, Millar JD, Roberto RR, Wulff H Bull World Health Organ 1969 41(6):771-8 OPEN
1969 WER. Smallpox vaccination: Techniques. WHO WER 11 Apr 1969 44(15):249 PDF
1969 [On the effectiveness of various methods of smallpox immunization]. Russian Nikolaevskiĭ GP Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1969 46(4):91-5
1969 [Use of needleless injectors in smallpox immunization. 1. A macro and microscopic study of skin reaction to the administration of smallpox vaccine intradermally with needleless injectors]. Russian Akatova-Shelukhina EM, Fedorov VV, Chimishkian KL, Gurvich EB, Vorob'ev AA Vopr Virusol 1969 14(3):351-6
1969 [Experience in performing vaccination against smallpox by the needleless method]. Russian Agafonov VI, Vorob'ev AA, Beliakov VD, Marennikova SS, Shtunderenko GV, Nekrasov IL, Il'chenko AA, Averburg VV, Krasnikov AV, Lukin EP, Gnuchev NN, Vaniushin SP, Akatova-Shelukhina EM, Ishkil'din MI Voen Med Zh 1969 6:48-50
1970 Comparative advantages of jet injectors and bifurcated needles
Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Glokpor GF CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):205-7 PDF
1970 Response to late revaccination and to primary vaccination. Photographic comparison of multiple pressure and jet injection CDC PDF
1970 The efficacy and acceptability of the bifurcated needle technique: A summary of studies conducted in India WHO/SE/70.16 PDF
1970 A comparative study of the rotary lancet and bifurcate needle techniques of smallpox vaccination Nath LM, Rao YS, Rao TM Indian J Med Res 1970 58(3):388-93 OPEN
1970 Comparative studies of smallpox vaccination by the bifurcated needle and rotary lancet techniques Pattanayak S, Arora DD, Sehgal CL, Raghavan NG, Topa PK, Subrahmanyam YK Bull World Health Organ 1970 42(2):305-10 OPEN
1970 Tools and techniques in smallpox vaccination
Inter-Regional Seminar on Surveillance and Assessment in Smallpox Eradication. New Delhi, India, 30 Nov - 5 Dec 1970
Shafa E WHO/SE/71.30 pp 223-8 PDF
1971 The introduction of jet injection mass vaccination into the national smallpox eradication program of Brazil Millar JD, Morris L, Macedo Filho A, Mack TM, Dyal W, Medeiros AA Trop Geogr Med 1971 23(1):89-101
1972 A comparison of multiple pressure and scratch techniques in vaccination against smallpox Benenson AS SE/72.4 PDF
1972 Studies of the bifurcated needle and recommendations for its use Henderson DA, Arita I, Shafa SE/72.5 PDF
1972 A comparative study of smallpox vaccination techniques under field conditions Banerji SC, Sharma KL, Srivastava BC, Gupta RD Indian J Med Res 1972 60(5):772-7 OPEN
1972 [Oral and nasal immunization with Poxvirus vacciniae. I. Criteria for smallpox immunity and immunology of the conventional cutaneous reaction to vaccination]. Review. German Hochstein-Mintzel V Zentralbl Bakteriol Orig B 1972 156(1):1-14
1972 [Oral and nasal immunization with Poxvirus vacciniae. II. New methods of smallpox vaccination]. Review. German Hochstein-Mintzel V, Stickl H, Huber HC Zentralbl Bakteriol Orig B 1972 156(1):15-29
1972 [Evaluation of the effectiveness of revaccination against smallpox by the jet injection method]. Russian Marennikova SS, Shelukhina EM, Fedorov VV, Chimishkian KL, Shironin LI Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1972 49(8):28-34
1973 [Vaccination stamp for smallpox vaccination. A one-way instrument ready for use with freeze dried vaccine]. German Hochstein-Mintzel V, Huber HC, Stickl H Munch Med Wochenschr 1973 115(35):1474-6
1977 [Comparative assessment of the means and methods of immunizing humans against smallpox]. Russian Agafonov VI, Vorob'ev AA, Gapochko KG, Marennikova SS, Patrikeev GT Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1977 (6):31-5
1978 Smallpox vaccination certificate requirements for international travellers and status of smallpox vaccination according to national health legislation, Parts A & B Gromyko AI WHO/SE/78.130 PDF
1980 A note on the development of the bifurcated needle for smallpox vaccination Rubin BA WHO Chron 1980 34(5):180-1
1983 Origin of the rotary lancet Baxby D Personal communication to DA Henderson 16 May 1983 PDF
2003Smallpox vaccination: A review, part I. Background, vaccination technique, normal vaccination and revaccination, and expected normal reactions. Fulginiti VA, Papier A, Lane JM, Neff JM, Henderson DA Clin Infect Dis 2003 37(2): 241-250.

Vaccination: Complications and Contraindications

Year Title Authors Source
1962 Prophylactic effect of antivaccinia gamma globulin against post-vaccinial hepatitis Nanning W Bull World Health Organ 1962 27(3):317-324 OPEN
1967 Immunity following vaccination of the newborn Rao AR SE/SR/67.2:22 PDF
1967 Complications of smallpox vaccination. I. National survey in the United States, 1963 Neff JM, Lane JM, Pert JH, Moore R, Millar JD, Henderson DA N Engl J Med 1967 276(3):125-32
1967 Complications of smallpox vaccination United States 1963. II. Results obtained by four statewide surveys Neff JM, Levine RH, Lane JM, Ager EA, Moore H, Rosenstein BJ, Millar JD, Henderson DA Pediatrics 1967 39(6):916-23
1968 Smallpox vaccination in the newborn Lakhanpal U Indian J Med Res 1968 56(7):1034-9 OPEN
1969 Complications of smallpox vaccination, 1968. National surveillance in the United States Lane JM, Ruben FL, Neff JM, Millar JD N Engl J Med 1969 281(22):1201-8
1970 Vaccination of hospitalized patients and newborns: Contraindications to vaccination
Inter-Regional Seminar on Surveillance and Assessment in Smallpox Eradication. New Delhi, India, 30 Nov-5 Dec 1970
Rao AR WHO/SE/71.30:208-18 PDF
1970 Complications of smallpox vaccination: Surveillance during an island-wide program in Puerto Rico, 1967-1968 Ratner LH, Lane JM, Vicéns CN Am J Epidemiol 1970 91(3):278-85
1970 Deaths attributable to smallpox vaccination, 1959 to 1966, and 1968 [USA] Lane JM, Ruben FL, Abrutyn E, Millar JD JAMA 1970 212(3):441-4
1972 Neo-natal vaccination Kapali V SE/WP/72.1 PDF
1972 Smallpox vaccination in atopic children Neff JM WHO/SE/72.39 PDF
1972 Follow-up study of smallpox vaccination in the newborn Lakhanpal U WHO/SE/72.47 PDF
1972 Smallpox vaccination reactions, prophylaxis and therapy of complications Goldstein JA, Neff JM, Lane JM WHO/SE/72.46 PDF
1973 Smallpox vaccination before the age of 3 months: evaluation of safety Espmark JA, Rabo E, Heller L WHO/SE/73.56 PDF
1973Consequences of smallpox vaccination in leprosy patientsSaha K, Mittal MM, Ray SNInfect Immun 1973 8(3):301-8OPEN
1974 WER. Vaccination complications. Report from the UK WHO WER 10 May 1974 49(19):169 PDF
1975 WER. Vaccination complications. Report on eczema vaccinatum, UK WHO WER 5 Sep 1975 50(36):313-4 PDF
2002Contact vaccinia—Transmission of vaccinia from smallpox vaccinationNeff JM, Lane JM, Fulginiti VA, Henderson DAJAMA 2002 288(15): 1901-1905
2003Smallpox vaccination: A review, part II. Adverse eventsFulginiti VA, Papier A, Lane JM, Neff JM, Henderson DAClin Infect Dis 2003 37(2): 251-271

Vaccination: Multiple Antigens

Year Title Authors Source
1964 Response of Volta children to jet inoculation of combined live measles, smallpox and yellow fever vaccines Meyer Jr HM, Hostetler Jr DD, Bernheim BC, Rogers NG, Lambin P, Chassary A, Labusquière R, Smadel JE Bull World Health Organ 1964 30(6):783-94 OPEN
1965 A study of the effect of simultaneous vaccination with BCG and smallpox vaccine in newborn infants Lin HT Bull World Health Organ 1965 33(3):321-36 OPEN
1966 Effect of simultaneous BCG and smallpox vaccination in schoolchildren. Report of a WHO-sponsored preliminary study Christensen H, Kjolbye E, Aung Tun U Bull World Health Organ 1966 35(4):633-40 OPEN
1967 Simultaneous administration of live measles virus vaccine and smallpox vaccine Sherman PM, Hendrickse RG, Montefiore D, Peradze T, Coker G Br Med J 1967 2(5553):672-6 OPEN
1967 An evaluation of measles and smallpox vaccines simultaneously administered Budd MA, Scholtens RG, McGehee RF Jr, Gardner P Am J Public Health Nations Health 1967 57(1):80-6 OPEN
1967 Standardization and mass application of combined live measles-smallpox vaccine in Upper Volta Kalabus F, Sansarricq H, Lambin P, Proulx J, Hillman MR Am J Epidemiol 1967 86(1):93-111
1968 The effect of measles infection and of vaccination with certain live vaccines upon humoral immunity to smallpox Marennikova SS, Askerov VF Bull World Health Organ 1968 39(2):299-306 OPEN
1969 [Combined measles-smallpox vaccination]. Spanish Ristori C, Boccardo H, Borgoño JM, Greiber R, Heras E, Carrillo B, Ramírez A, Guzmán E Bol Oficina Sanit Panam 1969 67(4):322-7
1969 Joint WHO/CDC/USAID Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Safety, efficacy, and priorities in multiple antigen usage Hendrickse RG SEP Report IV(2):213-5 PDF
Associated vaccine campaigns. Organization and logistics Labusquière R CDC, SEP Report IV(2):216-20 PDF
1970 Combined BCG and smallpox vaccination (A field trial in Rwanda) Heyworth B J Trop Pediatr 1970 16(1):17-9
1971 Field evaluation of combined more attenuated live measles (Moraten)-smallpox vaccine in Honduras and Costa Rica Villarejos VM, Rodríguez-Aragonés A, Gúnera N, Arguedas JA, Buynak EB, Hilleman MR Am J Epidemiol 1971 93(5):384-391
1971 Simultaneous administration of live virus vaccines. Measles, mumps, poliomyelitis, and smallpox Karchmer AW, Friedman JP, Casey HL, Shope TC, Riker JB, Kappelman MM, Witte JJ Am J Dis Child 1971 121(5):382-8
1972 Simultaneous administration of several antigens Millar JD, Foster SO, Foege WH WHO/SE/72.36 PDF
1972 Combined BCG and smallpox immunization: A preliminary report on a method using the WHO bifurcated needle Vaughan JP, Lindqvist K, Brooke D, Doyle RF East Afr Med J 1972 49(3):207-12
1973 Simultaneous administration of smallpox, measles, yellow fever, and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus antigens to Nigerian children Ruben FL, Smith EA, Foster SO, Casey HL, Pifer JM, Wallace RB, Atta AI, Jones WL, Arnold RB, Teller BE, Shaikh ZQ, Lourie B, Eddins DL, Doko SM, Foege WH Bull World Health Organ 1973 48(2):175-81 OPEN
1975 Evaluation of a measles-smallpox vaccination campaign by a sero-epidemiologic method Breman JG, Coffi E, Bomba-Ire R, Foster SO, Herrmann KL Am J Epidemiol 1975 102(6):564-571
1975Smallpox and BCG vaccination in the newborn. Follow up studyDesai AB, Kabra BLIndian Pediatr 1975 12(4):335-8
1981 [Experimental basis for associated subcutaneous jet injection immunization against plague and smallpox]. Russian Gapochko KG, Gamleshko KhP, Gerasiuk LG, Emel'ianova OV, Litvinova AP Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1981 (1):65-9

Vaccination Policy

Year Title Authors Source
1972 Costs associated with the protection of the United States against smallpox Axnick NW, Lane JM WHO/SE/72.45 PDF
1973 The status of smallpox vaccination: a brief for discontinuing routine vaccination Langmuir AD WHO/SE/73.55 PDF
1973 The case for continued smallpox vaccination Benenson AS WHO/SE/73.58 PDF
1977Smallpox vaccinationLane JMJAMA 1977 237(22):2419-20
1978 Smallpox vaccination certificate requirements for international travellers and status of smallpox vaccination according to national health legislation, Parts A & B Gromyko AI WHO/SE/78.130 PDF
1979 Evaluation of smallpox vaccination policy Arita I, Breman JG Bull World Health Organ 1979 57(1):1-9 OPEN
1979 WER. Executive Board endorses Global Commission vaccination policy
[Recommendations and current status by country]
WHO WER 2 Feb 1979 54(5):36-37 PDF
1980 WER. Smallpox vaccination
[Status by country of routine and travel vaccination requirements]
WHO WER 11 Apr 1980 55(15):108 PDF


Year Title Authors Source
1965 Variolation in Ghana Scott D In: Epidemic Disease in Ghana 1901-1960. London, Oxford Univ Press, 1965, pp 83-4 PDF
1968 The practice of variolation among the Songhai of Mali Imperato P Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1968 62(6)863-73
1970 Notes on variolation
Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Glokpor GF CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(1):59-61 PDF
1970 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 37 6 Feb 1970
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 45(6):65-71 PDF
1971 [Instructions concerning the method of smallpox inoculation and the method of curing this disease taking into consideration the nature and way of life of the Indians of Guatemala. Printed on order of the superior government in the office of Don Ignacio Beteta, the year 1794]. Spanish Flores JF Bol Oficina Sanit Panam 1971 70(6):500-9 OPEN
1972Inoculation for smallpox (variolation) as performed in England prior to Jenner's discoveryCone TE JrPediatrics 1972 50(6):889OPEN
1972 The problem of variolating relating to the smallpox eradication programme in Afghanistan
Training Seminar on Smallpox Eradication. Karachi, Pakistan, 14-18 November 1972
Rangaraj AG SE/WP/PAK/72.2 PDF
1974 Observations on variolation practices in Mali Imperato P Trop Geogr Med 1974 26(4)429-40
1976 Record of interview with a variolator, Jalalabad, Afghanistan. 25 Nov 1976 Henderson DA DA Henderson personal papers PDF
1976 Variolation in Punjab
Report for the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Pakistan
Ullah IC PAK/PUN/WP/76.12 PDF
1975 Smallpox inoculation in Africa Herbert EW J Afr Hist 1975 16(4):539-59
1977 Variolation in the Rajasthan Desert Davis C WHO/SE/77.92
Indian J Public Health 1978 22(1):136-40
1981 Matthieu Maty and the adoption of inoculation for smallpox in Holland Janssens U Bull Hist Med 1981 55(2):246-56
1988Outbreaks of smallpox due to variolation in China, 1962-1965. [Introduction by DA Henderson] Jiang Y, Ma J, Xiahou GAm J Epidemiol 1988 128(1): 39-45