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Confluent smallpox Lesions in recovery Facial scarsFacial scars and blindness.

Smallpox: Clinical Features and Epidemiology

Key programme documents

Smallpox: Clinical and Laboratory Diagnosis (Section II)
In: Handbook for Smallpox Eradication Programmes in Endemic Areas (1st revision)
SEP unit, WHO. 1967. SE/67/5 Rev 1 PDF

Year Title Authors Source
1960 Epidemiological considerations of smallpox control
Inter-Regional Smallpox Conference. New Delhi, India, 14-19 Nov 1960
Soewondo R SEA/SPX/Conf 3
1964 Expert Committee on Smallpox. Geneva, Switzerland, 14-20 January 1964
Factors involved in transmission of smallpox and duration of immunity CW Dixon Smallpox/WP/7 PDF
A study of 240 cases of haemorrhagic smallpox Rao AR Smallpox/WP/22 PDF
1966 Smallpox: Mild and severe Sarkar JK Bull Calcutta Sch Trop Med 1966 14(2):57-8
1966 Smallpox: Its severity and mildness J Indian Med Assoc 1966 47(3):139-40
1967Effects of malnutrition on smallpox and yellow fever vaccination. ReviewNutr Rev 1967 25(4):108-10
1967 Age distribution of patients in endemic smallpox. II. Roberts CJ Cent Afr J Med 1967 13(3):61-2
1967 The clinical features of smallpox, 3 Roberts CJ Cent Afr J Med 1967 13(4):88-95
1968 A study of immunity to smallpox in persons who have experienced a previous attack Vichniakov VE Bull World Health Organ 1968 39(3):433-7 OPEN
1968 Epidemiological studies in smallpox. A study of intrafamilial transmission in a series of 254 infected families Rao AR, Jacob ES, Kamalakshi S, Appaswamy S, Bradbury Indian J Med Res 1968 56(12):1826-54 OPEN
1969 Joint WHO/CDC/USAID Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Epidemiology of smallpox in West and Central Africa Foege WH CDC, SEP Report IV(1):29-35a PDF
Persistence of smallpox in remote unvaccinated villages Imperato P, Sow O, LaPointe M, Vastine D, Leonard TA CDC, SEP Report IV(1):47-51 PDF
Associated with exposure at a funeral ceremony: Smallpox outbreak, Yawei Chiefdom, Kailahun District, Sierra Leone Cummings EC, Hopkins DR, Thornton JN CDC, SEP Report IV(1):52-4 PDF
Role of migrant groups in the transmission of smallpox in Mali Sow O CDC, SEP Report IV(1):55-6 PDF
A study of smallpox in the Tuaregs in Tahoua, Niger Masso AR CDC, SEP Report IV(1):57-8 PDF
1969 Smallpox and the density of susceptible persons in Matlab, East Pakistan Arita I WP/14 PDF
1969 Smallpox transmission in Southern Dahomey. A study of a village outbreak Henderson RH, Yekpe M Am J Epidemiol 1969 90(5):423-8
1969 Smallpox in a border area WHO Chron 1969 23(8):379-82
1970 An airborne outbreak of smallpox in a German hospital and its significance with respect to other recent outbreaks in Europe Wehrle PF, Posch J, Richter KH, Henderson DA Bull World Health Organ 1970 43(5):669-79 OPEN
1970 Airborne transmission of smallpox WHO Chron 1970 24(7):311-5
1971 A study of inapparent infection in smallpox. Heiner GG, Fatima N, Daniel RW, Cole JL, Anthony RL, McCrumb FR Jr WHO/SE/71.26
Am J Epidemiol 1971 94(3):252-68
PDF
1971 Epidemiology of variola minor in Brazil: A study of 33 outbreaks de Quadros CA, Morris L, da Costa EA, Arnt N, Tigre CH WHO/SE/71.32
Bull World Health Organ 1972 46(2): 165-71
PDF OPEN
1971 A study of intrafamilial transmission of smallpox. Heiner GG, Fatima N, McCrumb FR Jr WHO/SE/71.33
Am J Epidemiol 1971 94(4):316-326
PDF
1971 Endemic smallpox in rural East Pakistan. I. Methodology, clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of cases, and intervillage transmission Thomas DB, McCormack WM, Arita I, Khan MM, Islam S, Mack TM Am J Epidemiol 1971 93(5):361-372
1971 Endemic smallpox in rural East Pakistan. II. Intervillage transmission and infectiousness Thomas DB, Arita I, McCormack WM, Khan MM, Islam S, Mack TM Am J Epidemiol 1971 93(5):373-383
1971 Smallpox in children. A clinical study of 100 cases Sheth SC, Maruthi V, Tibrewala NS, Pai PM Indian J Pediatr 1971 38(3):128-31
1971 The transmission pattern of smallpox in Eastern Mali Fofana B, Imperato PJ, Nedvideck J Acta Trop 1971 28(2):175-9
1972 Epidemiology of smallpox in West Pakistan. III. Outbreak detection and interlocality transmission. [Republished in Am J Epidemiol 1995 141(6): 490-501. See Invited commentary. DA Henderson. Am J Epidemiol 1995 141(6): 489] Thomas DB, Mack TM, Ali A, Muzaffar Khan M Am J Epidemiol 1972 95(2):178-189
1972 Clinical smallpox: Classification and frequency of type of variola major Rao AR SE/72.1 PDF
1972 Incubation period of smallpox Downie AW SE/72.3 PDF
1972 Clinical stages of smallpox, chickenpox, herpes
Inter-Country Training Course in the Laboratory Diagnosis of Smallpox, 23-31 Oct 1972
Rao AR SE/WP/72.22 PDF
1972Pattern of transmission: Relative significance of cases of varying severityRao ARSE/72.2PDF
1972 Case fatality ratios in smallpox Shafa E WHO/SE/72.35 PDF
1972 Infected inanimate objects (fomites) and their role in transmission of smallpox Rao AR WHO/SE/72.40 PDF
1973 Role of mosquitoes in the spread of smallpox Sarkar JK, Hati AK, Mitra AC J Infect Dis 1973 128(6):781-3
1975 Pattern of intrafamilial transmission of smallpox in Calcutta, India Mukherjee MK, Sarkar JK, Mitra AC WHO/SE/75.73
Bull World Health Organ 1974 51(3):219-25
PDF
OPEN
1975 Epidemiological implications of the typing of variola isolates Dumbell KR, Huq F WHO/SE/75.74 PDF
1975 Clinical observations on smallpox: A study of 1233 patients admitted to the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Calcutta, during 1973 Mazumder DN, Mitra AC, Mukherjee MK Bull World Health Organ 1975 52(3):301-6 OPEN
1977 Problem of persistence of facial pockmarks among smallpox patients Ježek Z, Basu RN, Arya ZS WHO/SE/77.97 PDF
1978 Smallpox facial pockmarks [photographs] SME/78.2
1978 Fatality, facial scarring and blindness from smallpox in Bangladesh Hughes K WHO/SE/78.101 PDF
1979 A study of smallpox transmission rate in Bangladesh Tulloch J, Tarantola D SME/79.1 PDF
1979 Smallpox: Clinical types, causes of death, and treatment Koplan JP, Foster SO J Infect Dis 1979 140(3):440-1
1995Invited commentary on Epidemiology of smallpox in West Pakistan. III. Outbreak detection and interlocality transmission. [Thomas DB, Mack TM, Ali A, Muzaffar Khan M. Am J Epidemiol 1972 95(2):178-189. Republished Am J Epidemiol 1995141(6): 490-501.] Henderson DA.Am J Epidemiol 1995 141(6): 489.
1999Smallpox: Clinical and epidemiologic featuresHenderson DAEmerg Infect Dis 1999 5(4): 537–539PDF
2001 WER. Smallpox WHO WER 2 Nov 2001 76(44):337-44 PDF

Laboratory Research

Year Title Authors Source
1961 Studies on the virus content of mouth washings in the acute phase of smallpox Downie AW, St Vincent L, Meiklejohn G, Ratnakannan NR, Rao AR, Krishnan GNV, Kempe CH Bull World Health Organ 1961 25(1):49-53 OPEN
1961 Studies of smallpox antibody levels of sera from samples of the vaccinated adult population of Madras Downie AW, Hobday TL, St Vincent L, Kempe CH Bull World Health Organ 1961 25(1):55-61 OPEN
1961 Air sampling to recover variola virus in the environment of a smallpox hospital Meiklejohn G, Kempe CH, Downie AW, Berge TO, St Vincent L, Rao AR Bull World Health Organ 1961 25(1):63-67 OPEN
1964 WHO Expert Committee on Smallpox. Geneva, Switzerland, 14-20 Jan 1964
Bleeding and coagulation studies in smallpox and chicken-pox, Madras, India, 1962-63 Kempe CH Smallpox/WP/5 PDF
The viruses of variola major, variola minor and atypical strains
Downie AW Smallpox/WP/14 PDF
1965 Haemorrhagic smallpox. I. Preliminary haematological studies Roberts JF, Coffee G, Creel SM, Gaal A, Githens JH, Rao AR, Sundara Babu BV, Kempe CH Bull World Health Organ 1965 33(5):607-13 OPEN
1965 The recovery of smallpox virus from patients and their environment in a smallpox hospital Downie AW, Meiklejohn M, St Vincent L, Rao AR, Sundara Babu BV, Kempe CH Bull World Health Organ 1965 33(5):615-22 OPEN
1965 Smallpox frequency and severity in relation to A, B and O blood groups Downie AW, Meiklejohn G, St Vincent L, Rao AR, Sundara Babu BV, Kempe CH Bull World Health Organ 1965 33(5):623-5 OPEN
1965 Smallpox vaccination: ABO and Rhesus blood groups Bourke GJ, Clarke N, Thornton EH J Med Genet 1965 2(2):122-5 OPEN
1965 Haemorrhagic smallpox. 2. Specific bleeding and coagulation studies McKenzie PJ, Githens JH, Harwood ME, Roberts JF, Rao AR, Kempe CH Bull World Health Organ 1965 33(6):773-82 OPEN
1966ABO blood groups in active cases of smallpoxSukumaran PK, Master HR, Undevia JV, Balakrishnan V, Sanghvi LDIndian J Med Sci 1966 20(2):119-22
1966ABO blood groups and smallpox in a rural population of West Bengal and Bihar (India)Vogel F, Chakravartti MRHumangenetik 1966 3(2):166-80
1966 Comparative study of haemagglutination-inhibiting-antibody and neutralising antibody in sera of cases of smallpox Sarkar JK, Chatterjee SN, Mitra AC, Mandal A Bull Calcutta Sch Trop Med 1966 14(1):4-5
1965Haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titre in mild and severe cases of smallpoxSakar JK, Chatterjee SN, Mitra AC, Chakravarty SK, Mondal ABull Calcutta Sch Trop Med 1965 13:20-1
1966 Severity of smallpox and virulence of causative virus strains Sarkar JK, Mitra AC Bull Calcutta Sch Trop Med 1966 14(2):36-7
1967 Antibody response in haemorrhagic smallpox Sarkar JK, Chatterjee SN, Mitra AC, Mondal A Indian J Med Res 1967 55(11):1143-9 OPEN
1967Hemorrhagic smallpox. A study of 22 cases to determine the cause of bleedingMehta BC, Doctor RG, Purandare NM, Patel JCIndian J Med Sci 1967 21(8):518-23
1968 The effect of measles infection and of vaccination with certain live vaccines upon humoral immunity to smallpox Marennikova SS, Askerov VF Bull World Health Organ 1968 39(2):299-306 OPEN
1968 Serum proteins and antibody studies in smallpox Sarkar JK, Ray S, Mitra AC Indian J Med Res 1968 56(4):386-94 OPEN
1968Immunological studies in smallpoxSeal SC, Roy DKIndian J Med Res 1968 56(4):467-93OPEN
1968 [Smallpox and ABO blood groups in the Congo]. French Lambotte C Bull World Health Organ 1968 38(2):321-2 OPEN
1969 Haemorrhagic smallpox Downie AW, Fedson DS, Saint Vincent L, Rao AR, Kempe CH J Hyg (Lond) 1969 67(4):619-29 OPEN
1969 Relation between the neutralizing and haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies in smallpox Sarkar JK, Chatterjee SN, Mitra AC, Mondal A Indian J Med Res 1969 57(1):8-12 OPEN
1969 Antibody response following smallpox vaccination and revaccination Downie AW, Saint Vincent L, Rao AR, Kempe CH J Hyg (Lond) 1969 67(4):603-8 OPEN
1969 Antibody response in non-haemorrhagic smallpox patients Downie AW, Saint Vincent L, Goldstein L, Rao AR, Kempe CH J Hyg (Lond) 1969 67(4):609-18 OPEN
1969 Smallpox and the ABO system in Southern Brazil Krieger H, Vicente AT Hum Hered 1969 19(6):654-7
1969 [A study of skin test response and serological indices in those revaccinated with smallpox vaccine]. Russian Svet-Moldavskaia IA, Marennikova SS, Ogorodnikova ZI, Knezel' NG, Akatova-Shelukhina EM Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1969 46(5):57-61
1970 [Effect of incubation temperature on the development of specific lesions caused by smallpox virus]. Russian Marennikova SS, Shafikova RA Vopr Virusol 1970 15(2):239-40
1970 [Characteristics of strains of smallpox virus isolated from various forms of the disease]. Russian Shafikova RA, Marennikova SS Vopr Virusol 1970 15(6):699-702
1971 A study of inapparent infection in smallpox. Heiner GG, Fatima N, Daniel RW, Cole JL, Anthony RL, McCrumb FR Jr WHO/SE/71.26
Am J Epidemiol 1971 94(3):252-68
PDF
1971 Results of virological examination of smallpox convalescents and contacts Shelukhina EM, Marennikova SS, Maltzeva NN, Matzevich GR, Hashmi AA WHO/SE/71.31 PDF
1971 Studies on viability of Variola virus. I. Viability of Variola virus in smallpox material on glass slides, in capillary tubes on filter paper and cotton threads Rao AR, Sukumar MS, Paramasivam TV, Kamalakshi S, Parasuraman AR, Ramakrishnan MS Indian J Med Res 1971 59(5):699-704 OPEN
1972 Virus excretion in smallpox. 1. Excretion in the throat, urine and conjunctiva of smallpox cases
Inter-Country Seminar on Surveillance in Smallpox Eradication. New Delhi, India, 30 Oct - 2 Nov 1972
Sarkar JK, Mitra AC, Mukherjee MK, De S, Mazumdar DG SE/WP/72.11
Bull World Health Organ 1973 48(5):517-22
PDF
OPEN
1972 Infected inanimate objects (fomites) and their role in transmission of smallpox Rao AR WHO/SE/72.40 PDF
1972 A prospective study of serum antibody and protection against smallpox Mack TM, Noble J Jr, Thomas DB Am J Trop Med Hyg 1972 21(2):214-8
1972 Relationship of clinical severity, antibody level, and previous vaccination state in smallpox Sarkar JK, Mitra AC, Chakravarty MS Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1972 66(5):789-92
1973 Serial isolation of variola virus in the throat of household contacts of smallpox cases Sarkar JK, Mitra AC, Mukherjee MK Bull Calcutta Sch Trop Med 1973 21(2):21-2
1973 Virus excretion in smallpox. 2. Excretion in the throats of household contacts Sarkar JK, Mitra AC, Mukherjee MK, De SK Bull World Health Organ 1973 48(5):523-7 OPEN
1973 Role of mosquitoes in the spread of smallpox Sarkar JK, Hati AK, Mitra AC J Infect Dis 1973 128(6):781-3
1974 Virus content of smallpox scabs on different days of illness Mitra AC, Sarkar JK, Mukherjee MK WHO/SE/74.70
Bull World Health Organ 1974 51(1):106-7
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OPEN
1974 Duration of virus excretion in the throat of asymptomatic household contacts of smallpox patients Sarkar JK, Mitra AC, Mukherjee MK Indian J Med Res 1974 62(12):1800-3 OPEN
1975 The minimum protective level of antibodies in smallpox Sarkar JK, Mitra AC, Mukherjee MK Bull World Health Organ 1975 52(3):307-11 OPEN
1975 Epidemiological implications of the typing of variola isolates Dumbell KR, Huq F WHO/SE/75.74
69(3):293-81975 69(3):293-8
PDF
1976 Effect of temperature and relative humidity on variola virus in crusts Huq F Bull World Health Organ 1976 54(6):710-2
1977 Viability of variola virus in crusts at different temperatures and humidities Huq F WHO/SE/77.93
Bull World Health Organ 1976 54(6):710-2
PDF
OPEN
1977Virological studies of smallpox in an endemic area. II. Virus content of clinical specimens and typing of virus isolatesKitamura T, Aoyama Y, Kurata T, Arita M, Imagawa YJpn J Med Sci Biol 1977 30(5):229-39OPEN
1979 Smallpox and the ABO system association: A critical review Krieger H, Barbosa CA Rev Bras Biol 1979 39(1):195-9

Laboratory Diagnosis

Key Program Documents

1967. Smallpox: Clinical and laboratory diagnosis (Section II)
In: Handbook for Smallpox Eradication Programmes in Endemic Areas (1st rev)
SE/67/5 Rev 1 PDF

1969. Guide to the laboratory diagnosis of smallpox for smallpox eradication programmes.
WHO, 1969 PDF


Year Title Authors Source
1961 Laboratory differentiation between variola major and variola minor Dumbell KR, Bedson HS, Rossier E Bull World Health Organ 1961 25(1):73-78 OPEN
1963 Smallpox. Observations on the reliability of rapid electron microscopic diagnosis Peters D, Nielsen G, Bayer ME WHO/Smallpox/19 PDF
1964 Laboratory aspects
WHO Expert Committee on Smallpox, Geneva, 14-20 January 1964
Downie AW Smallpox/WP/2 PDF
1965 Use of the fluorescent antibody technique in the detection and differential diagnosis of smallpox Gurvich EB, Roihel VM Acta Virol 1965 9:165-71
1965 [Laboratory diagnosis of smallpox during the 1963 epidemic in Poland]. Polish Mészáros J, Fidziańska E, Kreska B Przegl Epidemiol 1965 19(3):335-46
1966 Smallpox outbreak and vaccination problems in Stockholm, Sweden 1963. III. Diagnosis, clinical classification and symptoms, differential diagnosis and therapy Ström J, Gerzén P, Herzenberg H, Jansson U, Ursing J, Werneman H Acta Med Scand Suppl 1966 464:57-65
1966 Electron microscopy in the rapid diagnosis of smallpox Cruickshank JG, Bedson HS, Watson DH Lancet 1966 288(7462):527-30
1967 Evaluation of the fluorescent antibody technique for the diagnosis of smallpox el-Ganzoury AL J Clin Pathol 1967 20(6):879-82 OPEN
1967 [Laboratory diagnosis of smallpox in the Americas]. Spanish Noble J, Sales Gomes JF, Rodrigues BA, Bica AN Bol Oficina Sanit Panam 1967 2(166-167):531-536 OPEN
1968 The development of smallpox laboratory diagnostic services
Meeting of Regional Advisers on Smallpox Eradication. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3-10 Apr 1968
DA Henderson personal papers PDF
1968 Laboratory aids to the control of smallpox in countries where the disease is not endemic Dumbell KR Prog Med Virol 1968 10:388-97
1970 Experience with electron microscopy in the differential diagnosis of smallpox Long GW, Nobel J Jr, Murphy FA, Herrmann KL, Lourie B Appl Microbiol 1970 20(3):497-504 OPEN
1970 Accuracy of smallpox diagnosis by immunofluorescence with a purified conjugate Noble J Jr, Loggins MS Appl Microbiol 1970 19(5):855-61 OPEN
1970 A clinical and laboratory study of smallpox in Brazil. Accuracy of the laboratory diagnosis of smallpox in patients with Brazilian variola minor infection Noble J Jr, Long GW, Kirchner E, Sesso J Am J Trop Med Hyg 1970 19(6):1020-8
1970 Precipitation in gel test in diagnosis of smallpox Rao AR, Sukumar MS, Kamalakshi S, Paramasivam TV, Shantha M, Parasuraman AR Indian J Med Res 1970 58(3):271-82 OPEN
1970 [Smallpox or chickenpox: A difficult clinical and laboratory diagnosis]. Spanish López JH, García J, Uribe A, Noble J Jr Bol Oficina Sanit Panam 1970 68(6):503-9 OPEN
1970 [Analysis of specimens for the diagnosis of smallpox in a laboratory of Brazil]. Spanish Schatzmayr HG, Mesquita JA Bol Oficina Sanit Panam 1970 69(6):500-4 OPEN
1972 Further studies with precipitation in gel test in diagnosis of smallpox. I. Studies on detection of antibodies in sera by pig test Rao AR, Savithri Sukumar M, Kamalakshi S, Paramasivam TV, Ramakrishnan S Indian J Med Res 1972 60(9):1254-60 OPEN
1972 Evaluation of virological laboratory methods for smallpox diagnosis
New Approaches to Investigation and Diagnosis of Viral Diseases, Sapporo, Japan, 18-20 Sep 1972
Nakano JH WHO/SE/72.44
Bull World Health Organ 1973 48(5):529-34
PDF
OPEN
1972 Inter-Country Seminar on Surveillance in Smallpox Eradication, New Delhi, India, 30 Oct - 2 Nov 1972
The role of the diagnostic laboratory Henderson DA SE/WP/72(6) PDF
Problems of smallpox diagnosis Zacharias J SE/WP/72.17 PDF
1971 [Laboratory study of smallpox in patients of the Emilio Ribas Infectious Diseases Hospital of São Paulo, Brazil. I. Evaluation of different direct methods of diagnosis]. Portuguese Kirchner E, Noble J, Sesso J, Long G Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 1971 13(4):257-67
1972 [Laboratory study of smallpox in patients of the Emilio Ribas Infectious Disease Hospital of Sao Paulo, Brazil. II. Evaluation and interpretation of the serodiagnosis]. Portuguese Kirchner E, Noble J, Sesso J, Long G Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 1972 14(2):114-20
1972 [Use of the indirect hemagglutination reaction for the laboratory diagnosis of smallpox]. Russian Noskov FS, Marennikova SS, Konikova RE, Shelukhina EM, Ertte AP Vopr Virusol 1972 17(3):347-51
1972 Smallpox in Rhodesia and the use of the electron microscope in the diagnosis of this and other diseases Swanepoel R, Cruickshank JG Cent Afr J Med 1972 18(4):68-72
1973 Smallpox, vaccinia and human monkeypox viruses. For publication in: Manual of clinical microbiology, 2nd ed. American Society for Microbiology. Washington DC Nakano JH, Bingham PG SE/73.2 PDF
1973 Evaluation of the precipitation-in-gel reaction in the diagnosis of smallpox Mitra AC, Sarkar JK, Mukherjee MK, Chakravarty MS Bull World Health Organ 1973 49(6):555-8 OPEN
1974 Evaluation of egg inoculation and precipitation in gel test for laboratory diagnosis of smallpox Sehgal CL, Pal SC Indian J Med Res 1974 62(8):1134-9 OPEN
1974Studies on freeze dried smallpox vaccine as a source of antigen in the precipitation-in-gel testSehgal CL, Ray SNIndian J Med Res 1974 62(9):1407-14OPEN
1977 Virological studies of smallpox in an endemic area. I. Evaluation of immunofluorescence staining as a rapid diagnostic procedure in the field Kitamura T, Aoyama Y, Kurata T, Arita M, Imagawa Y Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1977 30(5):215-27 OPEN
1978 Role of laboratory diagnosis in the smallpox eradication programme in India Ježek Z, Basu PN, Sehgal S, Balasubramaniam S, Arya ZS Indian J Public Health 1978 22(1):113-9
1979 WER. Collection and testing of specimens WHO WER 16 Mar 1979 54(11):85 PDF

Therapy and Prophylaxis

Year Title Authors Source
1961 The use of vaccinia hyperimmune gamma-globulin in the prophylaxis of smallpox Kempe CH, Bowles C, Meiklejohn G, Berge TO, ST Vincent L, Sundara Babu BV, Govindarajan S, Ratnakannan NR, Downie AW, Murthy VR Bull World Health Organ 1961 25(1):41-48 OPEN
1962 The chemotherapy of variola major infection Bauer DJ, Dumbell KR, Foxhulme P, Sadler PW Bull World Health Organ 1962 26(6):727-32 OPEN
1962 The use of hyperimmune antivaccinia gammaglobulin for the prevention and treatment of smallpox Marennikova SS Bull World Health Organ 1962 27(3):325-30 OPEN
1964 Expert Committee on Smallpox. Geneva, Switzerland, 14-20 Jan 1964
Chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy Downie AW, Kempe CH Smallpox/WP/3 PDF
The use of vaccinia hyperimmune gamma-globulin in the prophylaxis of smallpox Kempe CH Smallpox/WP/4 PDF
Hyperimmune antivaccinia gamma globulin from animal sera Marennikova SS, Akatova-Shelukhina EM, Maltseva NN, Ghenkina PB, VN Milushkin, Miniovich FL Smallpox/WP/24 PDF
1965 [The current status of smallpox prophylaxis]. Russian Marennikova SS, Solov'ev VD Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1965 42(9):15-21
1965Chemoprophylaxis of smallpox and treatment of vaccinia gangrenosa with 1-methylisatin 3-thiosemicarbazoneBauer DJAntimicrob Agents Chemother 1965 5:544-7
1966 [Experimental basis for smallpox chemoprophylaxis]. Russian Marennikova SS, Kaptsova TI, Kraft MIa, Borodina GM Biull Eksp Biol Med 1966 61(6):68-71
1967 On the prophylactic activity on N-methyl isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone against smallpox infection Kaptsova TI, Marennikova SS Acta Virol 1967 11(6):554-6
1967 [Current aspects and considerations on the prophylactic protection against the introduction of smallpox cases into countries free from the disease]. Italian Giannico L Ann Sanita Pubblica 1967 28(6):1433-80
1967[Testing of disinfectants for virucidal power against viruses of the smallpox-vaccinia group]. GermanPöhn HP, Heicken KZentralbl Bakteriol Orig 1967 202(2):172-83
1968 [Chemoprophylactic approach to smallpox control]. Spanish Bauer DJ Bol Oficina Sanit Panam 1968 64(2):137-47 OPEN
1968Clinical assessment of an isothizole thiosemicarbazone against smallpoxSharma RJ Indian Med Assoc 1968 51(12):610-2
1968[Resistance of viruses of the subgroup smallpox-vaccinia to treatments primarily damaging the protein coat of the nucleic component of the virus]. RussianSitnikov BS, Gendom IuZVopr Virusol 1968 13(5):554-60
1968[Resistance of viruses of the subgroup smallpox-vaccinia to treatments primarily damaging the protein coat of the nucleic component of the virus]. RussianSitnikov BS, Gendom IuZVopr Virusol 1968 13(5):554-60
1969 Prophylaxis of smallpox with methisazone Bauer DJ, St Vincent L, Kempe CH, Young PA, Downie AW Am J Epidemiol 1969 90(2):130-45
19696-Azauridine in smallpoxJaffari SM, Hussain AIndian J Med Res 1969 57(5):809-14OPEN
1969[Methisazone (Marboran) in the prevention of smallpox and in the treatment of the complications of smallpox vaccination. Review]. ItalianBianchini CArch Ital Sci Med Trop Parassitol 1969 50(1):29-38
1971 Field trials of methisazone as a prophylactic agent against smallpox Heiner GG, Fatima N, Russell PK, Hasse AT, Ahmad N, Mohammed N, Thomas DB, Mack TM, Khan MM, Knatterud GL, Anthony RL, McCrumb FR Jr WHO/SE/71.29
Am J Epidemiol 1971 94(5):435-449
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1971[New method of obtaining and clinical use of human anti-smallpox gamma globulin of directed action]. RussianPapko GFZh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1971 48(2):66-70
1972Treatment of smallpox with cytosine arabinosideHossain MS, Foerster J, Hryniuk W, Israels LG, Chowdhury AS, Biswas MKLancet 1972 300(7789):1230-2
1972[Prevention and treatment of smallpox and post-vaccinal complications with metizazone and preparation MB 7714 (review of the literature)]. RussianNikolaevskiĭ GPZh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1972 49(9):39-41
1974 Failure of cytosine arabinoside in treating smallpox. A double-blind study Dennis DT, Doberstyn EB, Awoke S, Royer GL Jr, Renis HE Lancet 1974 304(7877):377-9
1975 [Vaccinoprophylaxis of smallpox under present conditions]. Russian Marennikova SS Vestn Akad Med Nauk SSSR 1975 4:33-7
1976 [Chemical agents for treatment of and emergency protection against smallpox]. Russian Ladnyi ID, Ogorodnikova ZI, Davydov SU Vopr Virusol 1976 1:4-12
1979 Smallpox: Clinical types, causes of death, and treatment Koplan JP, Foster SO J Infect Dis 1979 140(3):440-1
1980[Active immunoprophylaxis of smallpox (current prospects)]. RomanianCiufecu CRev Ig Bacteriol Virusol Parazitol Epidemiol Pneumoftiziol Bacteriol Virusol Parazitol Epidemiol 1980 25(2):73-9