Smallpox Eraducation Programme Archive

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"The Big Red Book"

The Big Red Book

Big Red Book

Smallpox and Its Eradication

Fenner, Frank; Henderson, Donald A; Arita, Isao; Ježek, Zdeněk; Ladnyi, Ivan Danilovich
World Health Organization, Geneva: 1988
1460 pages; References: pp. 1371-1409
480 tables; 268 figures; 375 plates (84 color)

This book is WHO's official history of the Intensified Smallpox Eradication Programme (SEP). It responds to the recommendation of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication that

"the Director-General ... [will] ensure the production ... of appropriate publications describing smallpox and its eradication, in order to preserve the unique historical experience of eradication and thereby contribute to the development of other health programmes".

Each author was deeply involved in the programme. Each reviewed and commented on multiple drafts of all chapters. In addition, 78 other persons, each an expert in an appropriate scientific field or with personal knowledge of a national eradication or certification programme, commented on chapter drafts.

The successful execution of the SEP depended on activities ranging from field work to administration through laboratory studies and fund-raising. All are included in this volume.

Note: The complete volume (83.9 MB) may be slow to open or download. Select a chapter from the Table of Contents or chapter descriptions below.

Chapters 1-4. Features of smallpox and the variola and vaccinia viruses

Chapter 1 (4.5 MB) — Clinical features of smallpox

Chapter 2 (3.1 MB) — Variola virus and other orthopoxviruses.

Chapter 3 (2.8 MB) — Pathogenesis, pathology, and immunology of variola virus (smallpox) and vaccinia virus (source of smallpox vaccine)

Chapter 4 (2.2 MB) — Epidemiology of smallpox

Chapters 5-8. History of smallpox and its control

Chapter 5 (2.3 MB) — History of smallpox and its spread around the world through the end of the 19th century

Chapter 6 (2.1 MB) — Early efforts at smallpox control: Variolation, vaccination, and isolation and quarantine

Chapter 7 (2.2 MB) — Developments in vaccination and control, 1900-1966

Chapter 8 (2.1 MB) — Incidence and control of smallpox, 1900-1958

Chapters 9-11. The global smallpox eradication programme

Chapter 9 (3.1 MB) — Development of a global smallpox eradication programme, 1958-1966

Chapter 10 (8.1 MB) — The Intensified Smallpox Eradication Programme, 1967-1980 (includes annual world maps, graphs, and summary)

Chapter 11 (2.9 MB) — Smallpox vaccine and vaccination in the Intensified Smallpox Eradication Programme

Chapters 12-23. Programme operations by area or country

The order of the chapters corresponds generally to the sequence in which national programmes began or were strengthened.

Chapter 12 (1.7 MB) — South America

Chapter 13 (1.6 MB) — Indonesia

Chapter 14 (2.8 MB) — Afghanistan and Pakistan

Chapter 15 (5.2 MB) — India and the Himalayan Area

Chapter 16 (2.3 MB) — Bangladesh

Chapter 17 (3.6 MB) — Western and Central Africa

Chapter 18 (2.0 MB) — Zaire and Sudan

Chapter 19 (1.4 MB) — Eastern Africa: Kenya, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi

Chapter 20 (1.6 MB) — Southern Africa

Chapter 21 (2.5 MB) — Ethiopia, Yemen, and Democratic Yemen

Chapter 22 (1.9 MB) — Somalia and Djibouti

Chapter 23 (1.8 MB) — Smallpox in non-endemic countries: Importations and outbreaks, 1959-1978

Chapters 24-27. The process of certification of eradication

Chapter 24 (2.4 MB) — Certification of eradication: Concepts, strategy and tactics

Chapter 25 (2.3 MB) — Certification by International Commissions, 1973-1977

Chapter 26 (1.7 MB) — Certification of 29 countries of Africa and Asia, 1978-1979

Chapter 27 (2.1 MB) — Completion of global certification: The Horn of Africa and China

Chapters 28-31. Considerations after the eradication of smallpox

Chapter 28 (1.3 MB) — Post-eradication operations: Implementation of the 19 recommendations of the Global Commission

Chapter 29 (2.0 MB) — Human monkeypox and other poxvirus infections of man

Chapter 30 (1.3 MB) — Potential sources for a return of smallpox

Chapter 31 (2.2 MB) — Lessons and benefits: Principles and lessons, costs and benefits, implications for the future


Introductory pages — Title Pages, Table of Contents, Foreword, Preface, Acknowledgments, Reviewers

Table of Contents


Index of Names

Subject Index