Smallpox Eraducation Programme Archive

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Scarification and inoculation of calfCentrifugal freeze dryer Eggs are inoculated for potency testing Comparison of response to multiple pressure and jet injection techniques

Vaccine: Research and Development

Key Program Documents

1967. Vaccination: Technical Considerations (Section III)
In: Handbook for Smallpox Eradication Programmes in Endemic Areas (1st rev)
SE/67/5 Rev 1 PDF

Year Title Authors Source
VACCINE RESEARCH BEFORE 1967
1952 Report of the Consultative Group on Laboratory Investigation of Dried Smallpox Vaccine WHO WHO/Smallpox/3 PDF
1956 Laboratory and vaccine studies with dried smallpox vaccines Cockburn WC, Cross RM, Downie AW, Dumbell KR, Kaplan C, McClean D, Payne AMM WHO/Smallpox/5 PDF
1957 The keeping quality of smallpox vaccine Irwin JO WHO/Smallpox/6 PDF
1957 Studies with dried and glycerinated smallpox vaccines of full and diminished potencies Cross RM, Kaplan C, McClean D WHO/Smallpox/8
Bull World Health Organ 1958 19(1):123-8
PDF
OPEN
1959 A study of the immunogenicity of smallpox vaccines Soloviev VD, Mastyukova YN Bull World Health Organ 1959 20(6):1099-110 OPEN
1960 Kinetics of deterioration of smallpox vaccine Fisek NH Bull World Health Organ 1960 22(3-4):435-7 OPEN
1961Comparison of dried vaccine with fresh Indian buffalo-calf lymph in revaccination against smallpoxHobday TL, Rao AR, Kempe CH, Downie AWBull World Health Organ 1961 25(1):69-71OPEN
1962 Relationship between pock counts on chorioallantoic membrane and percentages of "takes" in primary vaccination of human beings with two smallpox vaccines Polak MF, Brans LM, Beunders BJW, van der Werrf AR Bull World Health Organ 1962 27(3):311-316 OPEN
1963A comparative study of clinical reaction observed after application of several smallpox vaccines in primary vaccination of young adultsPolak MF, Beunders BJW, van der Werff AR, Sanders EW, van Klaveren JN, Brans LMSmallpox/WP/27
Bull World Health Organ 1963 29(3):311-22
PDF
OPEN
1964 The relation between potency of vaccine used in smallpox vaccination and immunity produced
WHO Expert Committee on Smallpox. Geneva, Switzerland, 14-20 Jan 1964
MF Polak Smallpox/WP/9 PDF
1965Smallpox vaccination studies with serial dilutions of vaccine
– 1. Primary vaccination and revaccination in human adultsEspmark JAActa Pathol Microbiol Scand 1965 63:97-115
– 2. Statistical evaluation of quantal response dataEspmark JAActa Pathol Microbiol Scand 1965 63:97-116-26
– 3. Comparison of take rates in two age groups of infants (less than 10 weeks and 5-12 months old respectively)Espmark JA, Rabo EActa Paediatr Scand 1965 54:149-54
– 4. Graded local responses and fever reactions following primary vaccinations in childrenEspmark JAActa Paediatr Scand 1965 54:239-46
1966[Comparative study of the inoculability, reactogenicity and antigenic activity of smallpox vaccines prepared from various strains (preliminary report)]. RussianMarennikova SS, Tashpulatov GMVopr Virusol 1966 11(3):266-72
1966[Comparative evaluation of smallpox vaccines]. RussianUnanov SS, Marennikova SS, Akatova EM, Gurvich EB, Kantsova TI, Mal'tseva NN, Milushin VN, Plutenko KI, Shutov AVVopr Virusol 1966 11(5):519-25
VACCINE RESEARCH DURING SMALLPOX ERADICATION PROGRAMME
1969[Laboratory markers of the reactogenicity of smallpox vaccines]. RussianMarennikova SS, Svet-Moldavskaia IA, Mal'tseva NMVopr Virusol 1969 14(5):579-84
1972Some factors determining differences in the antigenicity of vaccinia virus strainsMarennikova SS, Čimiškjan KL, Šenkman LS, MacevičBull World Health Organ 1972 46(2):159-163OPEN
1975Evaluation of two kinds of smallpox vaccine: CVI-78 and calf lymph vaccine. I. Clinical and serologic response to primary vaccinationWesley RB, Speers WC, Neff JM, Ruben FL, Lourie BPediatr Res 1975 9(8):624-8OPEN
1975Evaluation of two kinds of smallpox vaccine: CVI-78 and calf lymph vaccine. II. Clinical and serologic observations of response to revaccination with calf lymph vaccineSpeers WC, Wesley RB, Neff JM, Goldstein J, Lourie BPediatr Res 1975 9(8):628-32OPEN
1977Clinical and serologic study of four smallpox vaccines comparing variations of dose and route of administration
Basic study and laboratory standardization Benenson AS, Cherry JD, McIntosh K, Connor JD, Alling DW, Nakano J, Rolfe UT, Schanberger JE, Todd WA, DeCastro F, Horvath FL, Bairan A, Phillips IA, Galasso GJ, Matthels MJJ Infect Dis 1977 135(1):135-44
Primary percutaneous vaccinationCherry JD, McIntosh K, Connor JD, Benenson AS, Alling DW, Rolfe UT, Todd WA, Schanberger JE, MattheisJ Infect Dis 1977 135(1):145-54
Standard percutaneous revaccination of children who receive primary percutaneous vaccinationMcIntosh K, Cherry JD, Benenson AS, Connor JD, Alling DW, Rolfe UT, Todd WA, Schanberger JE, Mattheis MJJ Infect Dis 1977 135(1):155-66
Primary subcutaneous vaccinationConnor JD, McIntosh K, Cherry JD, Benenson AS, Alling DW, Rolfe UT, Schanberger JE, Mattheis MJJ Infect Dis 1977 135(1):167-75
Standard percutaneous revaccination of children who receive primary subcutaneous vaccinationCherry JD, Connor JD, McIntosh K, Benenson AS, Alling DW, Rolfe UT, Schanberger JE, Mattheis MJJ Infect Dis 1977 135(1):176-82
SummaryGalasso GJ, Mattheis MJ, Cherry JD, Connor JD, McIntosh K, Benenson AS, Alling DWJ Infect Dis 1977 135(1):183-6
1977Revaccination studies in children with graded potency of smallpox vaccinesPattanayak S, Sehgal CL, Choudhury S, Vijayan PIndian J Med Res 1977 65(6):756-9OPEN
1977History and recent developments of smallpox vaccineSingh LMJ Indian Med Assoc 1977 68(5):105-8

Vaccine: Production

Key program documents

1965. Requirements for Biological Substances: Smallpox Vaccine. Report of WHO Expert Group
WHO Technical Report No. 323 PDF

1968. Methodology of freeze-dried smallpox vaccine production
SE/68.3 Rev.2 PDF

Year Title Authors Source
1950 Studies on the effect of penicillin and streptomycin on vaccine lymph (calf lymph) under different conditions Krishnamurthy VN WHO/Smallpox/2 PDF
1955 Production method of smallpox vaccine at the Michigan State Laboratories, Lansing, USA WHO/Smallpox/4 PDF
1957 A stable dried smallpox vaccine. Summary of the method of preparation based on methods described by Collier WHO/Smallpox/7 PDF
1959 Titration of smallpox vaccines from ten countries sent to East Pakistan during the 1958 smallpox epidemic Wang SP, Grayston JT Bull World Health Organ 1959 20(6):1260-3 OPEN
1960 Titration of vaccinia virus by intravenous injection of chick embryos Kaplan C Bull World Health Organ 1960 22(3-4):393-7 OPEN
1961 A stable dried smallpox vaccine. Description of the method used at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine, Elstree, Herts, England WHO/Smallpox/7 Rev 2 PDF
1961 Improvements in the rabbit scarification method for the assay of smallpox vaccine Kolb RW, Cox CB, Aylor HT Bull World Health Organ 1961 25(1):19-24 OPEN
1961 A comparison of the rabbit scarification technique with titrations in cell cultures for the potency assay of smallpox vaccine Kolb RW, Cutchins EC, Jones WP, Aylor HT Bull World Health Organ 1961 25(1):25-32 OPEN
1961 Cultivation of vaccinia virus in sheep kidney cell cultures Subramanyam P, Divakaran S, Vinodeaj P Bull World Health Organ 1961 25(1):33-40 OPEN
1963 The international reference preparation of smallpox vaccine. An international collaborative assay Krag P, Weis Bentzon M Smallpox/WP/28
Bull World Health Organ 1963 29(3):299-309
PDF
OPEN
1964WHO Expert Committee on Smallpox. Geneva, Switzerland, 14-20 Jan 1964
– Smallpox vaccines C Kaplan Smallpox/WP/10 PDF
– A comparison of vaccinia virus strains used for production in various countries SS Marennikova, NN Nal'ceva Smallpox/WP/16 PDF
– The composition of genetically heterogeneous smallpox vaccines and methods of purifying them SS Marennikova, JZ Genden, NN Nal'ceva,FB Genkins, VI Čornos Smallpox/WP/23 PDF
1965Requirements for Biological Substances: Smallpox VaccineWHO Expert Group on Requirements for Biological SubstancesWHO Technical Report No. 323PDF
1968Methodology of freeze-dried smallpox vaccine productionSE/68.3 Rev 2PDF
1968See Browse/WHO and Smallpox Eradication Unit/Semianrs and Conferences: Traveling Seminar on Vaccine Production, Mar 1968. Thirty articles on vaccine production
1968 Table for handling of animals during scarification and harvest SE/68.9 PDF
1968[Freeze drying methods for smallpox cell culture vaccines]. GermanHerrero E, Meggers RZentralbl Bakteriol Orig 1968 209(1):1-9
1969Studies on laboratory testing of smallpox vaccines used in India under the National Smallpox Eradication Programme. Potency and bacterial sterility studiesSehgal CL, Murty DK, Shrivastav JB, Raghavan NGIndian J Med Res 1969 57(11):2040-57OPEN
1969 A study of variation in the number of pock lesions formed on the chorioallantoic membranes of chick embryos by titrating National Reference smallpox vaccine virus Sehgal CL, Murty DK, Singha P, Shrivastav JB, Raghavan NG Indian J Med Res 1969 57(11):2058-64 OPEN
1969 Freeze-dried vaccine for the smallpox eradication programme
Symposium on Smallpox, Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts, Zagreb, Yugoslavia, 2-3 Sep 1969
Arita I, Henderson DA Proceedings of the Symposium:39-50 PDF
1969[Experimental double infection of sheep with vaccinia virus and sheep-pox or orf virus. A contribution on the problem of contamination of smallpox dermovaccines with foreign viruses]. GermanMunz E, Reimann M, Höhnk DZentralbl Bakteriol Orig 1969 211(2):166-85
1970Freeze-drying of smallpox vaccine in small quantitiesHochstein-Mintzel V, Huber HBiotechnol Bioeng 1970 12(1):141-3OPEN
1970 Vaccine production, storage and handling
Inter-Regional Seminar on Surveillance and Assessment in Smallpox Eradication, New Delhi, India, 30 Nov-5 Dec 1970
Henderson DA WHO/SE/71.30:219-22 PDF
1970Inactivated smallpox vaccine. A comparison of inactivation methodsTurner GS, Squires EJ, Murray HGJ Hyg (Lond) 1970 68(2):197-210OPEN
1971Studies on laboratory testing of smallpox vaccines used in India under the National Smallpox Eradication ProgrammeSehgal CL, Murty DK, Singha P, Raghavan NGIndian J Med Res 1971 59(5):726-9OPEN
1972 Potency testing of smallpox vaccine Hekker AC, Bos JM WHO/SE/72.43 PDF
1972 Potency and stability characteristics of smallpox vaccine used in the smallpox eradication programme in Western and West-central Africa
International Symposium on Smallpox Vaccine, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, 11-13 Oct 1972 Also publ in
Bernstein A, Bierly MZ Jr WHO/SE/72.49
Regamey RH, Cohen H (eds). Symp Series Immunobiol Stand 1973 19:157-65
PDF
1972 The effect of residual moisture in lyophilized smallpox vaccine on its stability at different temperatures Sparkes JD, Fenje P Bull World Health Organ 1972 46(6):729-34 OPEN
1972 A gas chromatographic method of measuring residual water in freeze-dried smallpox vaccine Robinson LC Bull World Health Organ 1972 47(1):7-11 OPEN
1972Rapid heat stability (boiling) versus conventional heat stability (standard) test of freeze dried smallpox vaccineSehgal CL, Singha PIndian J Med Res 1972 60(7):996-1001OPEN
1980Appropriate technology in the development of freeze-dried smallpox vaccineCollier LHWHO Chron 1980 34(5):178-9