Smallpox Eraducation Programme Archives

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Variola virus stored in Moscow Emma Shelukhina Smallpox vaccine New vaccination certificate

Variola Virus Stocks

1977. Progress report on register of laboratories retaining variola virus. S2/180/3.
[28 July 1977]

1977. Report of a Workshop Meeting on Safety Measures in Laboratories retaining Variola Virus. SME/77.2.
[Workshop Meeting on Safety Measures in Laboratories retaining Variola Virus, Geneva, 1-4 August 1977]

1978. Laboratories with variola virus stocks. SME/78.25.
[Smallpox Eradication unit, WHO Headquarters, Geneva]

1979. Report of Consultation on the Justification for Retention and Use of Variola Virus in the Post Eradication Era. WHO/SE/79.135.

1979. Report of Meeting of Officials from Laboratories retaining Variola Virus and National Control Authorities Concerned, 23 - 24 April 1979. WHO/SE/79.137.
[Ministry of Health, Yemen Arab Republic and WHO]

1979. Safety standards in smallpox laboratories. WER 2:13.

1979. Smallpox surveillance: Laboratories retaining variola virus reduced to nine. WER 3:23.


1979. Recommendations of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication (Final Report of the Commission, December 1979)

Recommendation (9). No more than four WHO collaborating centres should be approved as suitable to hold and handle stocks of variola virus. A collaborating centre would be approved only if it had adequate containment facilities. Each such centre should report relevant information on their safety measures annually to WHO and be inspected periodically by WHO.

Recommendation (10). Other laboratories should be asked to destroy any stocks of variola virus that they hold, or transfer them to an approved WHO collaborating centre.


1994. Destruction of variola virus: Memorandum from a WHO meeting. Bull World Health Org 72(6): 841-4
[Based on the report of a meeting of the Ad Hoc Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections, Geneva, 9 Sep 1994] PMC


1995. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections. Report by the Director-General.. EB95/33.
[Executive Board, 95th Session, Jan 1995 ?]


1996. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. Report by the Director-General. EB97/14
[Executive Board, 97th Session, Jan 1996 ?]

1996. Resolution EB97.R14. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. EB97.R24
[Executive Board, 97th Session, Jan 1996 ?; Recommends destruction on 30 June 1999]

1996. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. Report by the Director-General. A49/5.
[Forty-ninth World Health Assembly, May 1996]

1996. Resolution WHA49.10. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. Report by the Director-General. WHA49.R10.
[Forty-ninth World Health Assembly, May 1996; Recommends destruction on 30 June 1999]


1999. Chronology of events related to variola virus destruction
[DA Henderson personal papers]

1999. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. Report by the Secretariat. A52/5.
[Fifty-second World Health Assembly, May 1999]

1999. Resolution WHA 52.10. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks.
[Fifty-second World Health Assembly, May 1999]


2000. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. Report by the Secretariat. EB106/3
[Executive Board, 106th Session, May 2000 ?]

2000. Smallpox eradication: temporary retention of variola virus stocks. Report by the Secretariat. A53/27.
[53rd World Health Assembly, May 2000]


2001. Smallpox eradication: temporary retention of variola virus stocks. Report by the Secretariat. A54/16
[54th World Health Assembly, May 2001]

2001. Smallpox eradication: temporary retention of variola virus stocks.. WER 19:142-5
[11 May 2001]


2002. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks.. WER 5:34-8
[1 Feb 2002]

2002. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. Report by the Secretariat. A55/21.
[55th World Health Assembly, May 2002]

2002. Resolution WHA55.15. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks.
[Fifty-fifth World Health Assembly, May 2002]


2003. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. Report by the Secretariat. EB111/5.
[Executive Board, 111th Session, Jan 2003 ?]

2003. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. Report by the Secretariat. A56/14
[56th World Health Assembly, May 2003]

2004. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. Report by the Secretariat. EB113/34.
[Executive Board, 113th Session, Jan 2004 ?]

2004. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. Report by the Secretariat. A57/7
[57th World Health Assembly, May 2004]

2005. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. Report by the Secretariat. A58/10
[58th World Health Assembly, May 2005]


2006. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. Report by the Secretariat. EB117/33.
[Executive Board, 117th Session, Jan 2006 ?]

2006. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. Report by the Secretariat. A59/10
[59th World Health Assembly, May 2006]


2007. Resolution EB120.R8: Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. EB120.R8.
[Executive Board, 120th Session, Jan 2007 ?]

2007. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks.. A60/R1.
[Sixtieth World Health Assembly, May 2007]


2008. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. Report by the Secretariat. A61/6.
[61st World Health Assembly, May 2008]

2010. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. Report by the Secretariat. EB126/18
[WHO Executive Board, 126th Session, Jan 2010?]

2010. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. Report by the Secretariat. A63/19.
[63rd World Health Assembly, May 2010]

2011. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. Report by the Secretariat. EB128/12.
[Executive Board, 128th Session, Jan 2011 ?]

2011. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. Report by the Secretariat. A64/17
[64th World Health Assembly, May 2011]

2014. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. Report by the Secretariat. EB134/34.
[Executive Board, 134th Session, Jan 2014 ?]

2014. Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks. Report by the Secretariat. A67/37
[67th World Health Assembly, May 2014]


Laboratory Research

1979. Report of Consultation on the Justification for Retention and Use of Variola Virus in the Post Eradication Era. WHO/SE/79.135.


1979. Recommendations of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication (Final Report of the Commission, December 1979)

Recommendation (12). WHO should continue to encourage and coordinate research on orthopoxviruses.

Recommendation (13). WHO should maintain the system of WHO collaborating centres for carrying out diagnostic work and research on orthopoxviruses.

Recommendation (14). Research workers who do not work in a WHO collaborating centre and who wish to carry out experiments with variola or whitepox virus that are approved by the appropriate WHO committee should be offered the use of the special facilities in a WHO collaborating centre.

Recommendation (15). Research on poxviruses other than variola or whitepox viruses should not be performed under circumstances where there is any possibility of cross-contamination with these two agents.


1982. Report of the first meeting of the Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections. WHO/SE/82.160.
[Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections, Geneva, 3-5 March 1982]

1983. Report of the second meeting of the Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections. WHO/SE/83.161.
[Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections, Geneva, 15-17 March 1983]

1984. Report of the third meeting of the Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections. WHO/SE/84.162.
[Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections, Geneva, 28-30 March 1984]

1986. Report of the fourth meeting of the Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections. SE/86.163.
[Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections, Geneva, 24-26 March 1986]

1990. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections. CDS/SME/91.1.
[Ad Hoc Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections, Geneva, 11-13 Dec 1990]

1994. Report of the Meeting of the Ad Hoc Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections. WHO/CDS/BVI/94.3
[Meeting of the Ad Hoc Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infection, Geneva, 9 Sep 1994]

1995. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections. Report by the Director-General. EB95/33.
[Executive Board, 95th Session, Jan 1995?]

1999. Report of the Meeting of the Ad Hoc Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections. WHO/CDS/CSR/99.1
[Meeting of the Ad Hoc Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infection, Geneva, 14-15 Jan 1999]

2004. Report of the Meeting of the Ad Hoc Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections. WHO/CDS/CSR/ARO/2004.3
[Meeting of the Ad Hoc Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infection, Geneva, 31 Aug - 1 Sep 2004]


1999. WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research. Report of a WHO meeting. WHO/CDS/CSR/2000.1
[Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research, Geneva, 6-9 Dec 1999]

2000. Smallpox eradication: WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research.. WER 5:45-8
[11 Feb 2000]

2001. WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research. Report of the 2nd Meeting. WHO/CDS/CSR/EDC/2001.17
[WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research, Geneva, 15-16 Feb 2001]

2001. WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research. Report of the 3rd Meeting. WHO/CDS/CSR/GAR/2002.3
[WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research, Geneva, 3-4 Dec 2001]

2002. WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research. Report of the 4th Meeting. WHO/CDS/CSR/GAR/2003.5
[WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research, Geneva, 20-21 Nov 2002]

2004. WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research. Report of the 6th Meeting. WHO/CDS/CSR/ARO/2005.4
[WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research, Geneva, 4-5 Nov 2004]

2006. WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research. Report of the 8th Meeting. WHO/CDS/EPR/2007.1
[WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research, Geneva, 16-17 Nov 2006]

2007. WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research. Report of the 9th Meeting. WHO/HSE/EPR/2008.1
[WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research, Geneva, 29-30 Nov 2007]

2008. WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research. Report of the 10th Meeting. WHO/HSE/EPR/2008.9
[WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research, Geneva, 19-20 Nov 2008]

2009. WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research. Report of the 11th Meeting. WHO/HSE/GAR/BDP/2009.3
[WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research, Geneva, 4-5 Nov 2009]

2010. WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research. Report of the 12th Meeting. WHO/HSE/GAR/BDP/2010.5
[WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research, Geneva, 17-18 Nov 2010]

2010. Scientific review of variola virus research, 1999-2010. WHO/HSE/GAR/BDP/2010.3
[Dec 2010]

2010. Advisory Group of Independent Experts to review the smallpox research programme (AGIES). Comments on the Scientific Review of Variola Virus Research, 1999-2010. WHO/HSE/GAR/BDP/2010.4
[Dec 2010]

2011. WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research. Report of the 13th Meeting. WHO/HSE/GAR/BDP/2011.2
[WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research, Geneva, 31 Oct - 1 Nov 2011]

2012. WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research. Report of the 14th Meeting. WHO/HSE/PED/CED/2013.1
[WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research, Geneva, 16-17 Oct 2012]

2013. WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research. Report of the 15th Meeting. WHO/HSE/PED/CED/2013.2
[WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research, Geneva, 24-25 Sep 2013]

2013. Advisory Group of Independent Experts to review the smallpox research programme (AGIES). Report to the World Health Organization. WHO/HSE/PED/CED/2013.3
[Nov 2013]

2014. WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research. Report of the 16th Meeting. WHO/HSE/PED/CED/2015.2
[WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research, Geneva, 20-21 Oct 2014]

Vaccine Reserves

1978. Smallpox vaccine stocks. SME/78.22.
[Smallpox Eradication unit, WHO Headquarters, Geneva]


1979. Recommendations of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication (Final Report of the Commission, December 1979)

Recommendation (3). Sufficient freeze-dried smallpox vaccine to vaccinate 200 million people should be maintained by WHO in refrigerated depots in two countries, together with stocks of bifurcated needles.

Recommendation (4). The stored vaccine should be periodically tested for potency.

Recommendation (5). Seed lots of vaccinia virus suitable for the preparation of smallpox vaccine should be maintained in designated WHO collaborating centres.

Recommendation (6). National health authorities that have vaccine stocks should be asked to inform WHO of the amount of vaccine maintained.


1980. Management of reserve stocks of vaccine in the post-smallpox eradication era. WHO/SE/80.158 (Rev 1).
[Smallpox Eradication unit, WHO]

2005. Global smallpox vaccine reserve. Report by the Secretariat. EB115/36.
[Executive Board, 115th Session, Jan 2005 ?]

2005. Smallpox: Global smallpox vaccine reserve. Report by the Secretariat. A58/9.
[58th World Health Assembly, May 2005]

Vaccination Policy

1979. Smallpox Eradication. Vaccination Policy. WER 5:36-7.
{Recommendations and current status by country. 2 Feb 1979]

1979. Recommendations of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication (Final Report of the Commission, December 1979)

Recommendation (1). Smallpox vaccination should be discontinued in every country except for investigators at special risk.

Recommendation (2). International smallpox vaccination certificates should no longer be required of any travellers.

1980. Smallpox vaccination. WER 15:108.
[Status by country of routine and travel vaccination requirements. 11 Apr 1980.]

Rumor Investigation

1979. Recommendations of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication (Final Report of the Commission, December 1979)

Recommendation (7). In order to maintain public confidence in the fact of global eradication, it is important that rumours of suspected smallpox, which can be expected to occur in many countries, should be thoroughly investigated. Information should be provided to WHO, if requested, so that it can be made available to the world community.

Recommendation (8). WHO should maintain an effective system to coordinate and participate in the investigation of suspected smallpox cases throughout the world. The international smallpox rumour register should be maintained.

1980. Management of suspected cases of smallpox in the post-eradication period. WHO/SE/80.157 Rev 1.
[Smallpox Eradication unit, WHO]

1980. Smallpox surveillance. WER 17:127.
[Confirmation of suspected chickenpox in Italian from South-East Asia requested. 25 Apr 1980.]

1980. Smallpox surveillance. WER 18:135.
[Italian case confirmed as chickenpox. 2 May 1980.]

Other

1980. The confirmation and maintenance of smallpox eradication. WHO/SE/80.156.
[JG Breman, I Arita]

1981. Report of Meeting on the Implementation of Post-Smallpox Eradication Policy. WHO/SE/81.159. [Digitized version not available]
[Meeting on the Implementation of Post-Smallpox Eradication Policy, Geneva, 3-5 February 1981]

1987. Tasks in the wake of smallpox eradication. World Health Forum 8:293-6.
[Z Je┼żek]

1987. Can smallpox return? World Health Forum 8:297-304.
[F Fenner]

1987. Can small[pox return? World Health Aug/Sep: 18-21.
[F Fenner]


1988. Is smallpox a hazard in church crypts? Brit J Ind Med 45:359-60
[PJ Baxter, AM Brazier, SEJ Young]