Smallpox Eraducation Programme Archives

target zero

Browse > By Country > South America

Region

WHO's Regional Office for the Americas was established in 1949, and is run by the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (PASB), the executive arm of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The PASB began as the International Sanitary Bureau in 1902. The name was changed to the Pan American Sanitary Bureau in 1923. Under a restructuring required by an expansion of responsibilities, the PASB became the executive arm of the Pan American Sanitary Organization in 1947. The name of the organization was changed to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 1950, but the name of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau was retained. PAHO is a fully autonomous organization that acts for WHO.

Smallpox had been largely eliminated from South America before WHO's global SEP program began. A regional program for the eradication of smallpox in the Americas had begun in 1950 following a resolution of the Pan American Sanitary Organization. Dr Fred L. Soper, Director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau, strongly supported the concept of eradication. By 1959, smallpox transmission had been interrupted in all but 5 countries, and 4 of these (Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, and Ecuador) had interrupted transmission by 1966.

This left Brazil as the only remaining South American country with endemic smallpox at the beginning of the SEP. However, it shared a border with all but 2 countries in the region and had large remote areas in the Amazon basin that had few, if any, health services.

Argentina

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1966. Importations during SEP: 1967, 1970. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 25 Aug 1973.


1970. Smallpox Surveillance Report. No. 47. Reprinted from WER 38:397-403.
18 Sep 1970
1970. Smallpox Surveillance Report. No. 49. Reprinted from WER 44:485-9.
30 Oct 1970
1972. Report on a survey to determine the status of smallpox and levels of smallpox immunity. WHO/SE/72.37.B
JJ Hiriart, CM da Silveira

Bolivia

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1960. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 25 Aug 1973.


Brazil

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1971. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 25 Aug 1973.


1968. Smallpox Surveillance Report. No. 8.
Reprinted from WER 37:468-72, 13 Sep 1968
1968. Smallpox Surveillance Report. No. 13.
Reprinted from WER 47:599-604, 22 Nov 1968
1969. Smallpox Surveillance Report. No. 18.
Reprinted from WER 8:150-8, 21 Feb 1969
1969. Smallpox Surveillance Report. No. 25.
Reprinted from WER 23:381-7, 6 Jun 1969
1969. Smallpox Surveillance Report. No. 33.
Reprinted from WER 45:613-9, 7 Nov 1969
1970. Smallpox Surveillance Report. No. 47.
Reprinted from WER 38:397-403, 18 Sep 1970
1970. Epidemiological characteristics of smallpox outbreaks in two small Brazilian villages. WHO/SE/70.22.
N Arnt, L Morris
1970. Smallpox in the Municipio of São Paulo, Brazil, 1945-1969: a 25 year review. WHO/SE/70.23.
L Morris, H Cappello, R Soares, JP de Leon, W Leser
1970. Surveillance in the Brazilian smallpox eradication programme 1970. Extracted from WHO/SE/71.30 pp 60-70.
GB de Faria, EC de Carvalho Filho, BA Rodrigues, J Ponce de Leon
Inter-Regional Seminar on Surveillance and Assessment in Smallpox Eradication, New Delhi, India, 30 Nov-5 Dec 1970
1970. Investigation of hospital-associated smallpox—Vitoria, Espiritu Santo. SE/WP/70.23 (same as WHO/SE/71.30 pp 71-8).
L Morris, AL de Lemos, OJ da Silva
Inter-Regional Seminar on Surveillance and Assessment in Smallpox Eradication, New Delhi, India, 30 Nov-5 Dec 1970
1971. Smallpox Surveillance Report. No. 56.
Reprinted from WER 16:158-60, 16 Apr 1971
1971. Epidemiology of variola minor in Brazil: a study of 33 outbreaks. WHO/SE/71.32.
CA de Quadros, L Morris, EA da Costa, N Arnt, CH Tigre
Later published in Bull World Health Org 46(2): 165-171, 1972
1972. Epidemiological investigation of a smallpox outbreak in a city reported to be 100% vaccinated. SE/72.6.
L Morris, AV Martinez, JO da Silva
1973. Smallpox eradication campaign-Brazil situation in 1972. WHO/SE/73.51.
C do Amaral Jr, JP de Leon, AM Filho, AL de Lemos, FG Varela
1973. A national reporting system in Brazil. WHO/SE/73.52.
AL de Lemos, OR de Souza
1974. Smallpox epidemic in a Brazilian community. WHO/SE/74.64.
EA Costa, L Morris
1976. Freedom from smallpox. Case histories on four countries where cases were missed for extended periods. WHO/SE/76.85.
DA Henderson
2007. Brazilian vaccinia viruses and their origins. Emerg Infect Dis 13(7): 965-72
GS Trindade, GL Emerson, DS Carroll, EG Kroon, IK Damon

Chile

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1954. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 25 Aug 1973.


Colombia

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1965. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 25 Aug 1973.


1960. Annual report of the national anti-smallpox vaccination programme in the Republic of Colombia, 1959. WHO/Smallpox/13.
Inter-regional Smallpox Conference. New Delhi, India, 14-19 November 1960

Ecuador

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1963. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 25 Aug 1973.


French Guiana

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1904. Importations during SEP: 1968. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 25 Aug 1973.


Guyana

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1951. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 25 Aug 1973.


Paraguay

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1960. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 25 Aug 1973.


1972. Paraguay: report on a survey to determine the status of smallpox and levels of smallpox immunity. WHO/SE/72.38.

Peru

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1966. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 25 Aug 1973.


1960. Report on the smallpox vaccination campaign carried out during the period October 1950 - December 1955. WHO/Smallpox/12.
A de la Fuente E; Inter-regional Smallpox Conference. New Delhi, India, 14-19 November 1960

Suriname

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1920. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 25 Aug 1973.


Uruguay

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1957. Importations during SEP: 1968, 1969. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 25 Aug 1973.


1968. Epidemiological Notes. Smallpox. WER 48:617.
Reporting of case secondary to importation from Brazil. 29 Nov 1968
1969. Imported case of smallpox in Uruguay. WER 39:562.
Importation from Brazil. 26 Sep 1969

Venezuela

Last endemic case of smallpox: 1956. Certified as smallpox-free by International Commission: 25 Aug 1973.


1970. An alastrim outbreak in the Gran Sabana (State of Bolivar), Venezuela, 1962. WHO/SE/70.14.
JG Halbrohr