Smallpox Eraducation  Archives

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Summary

Country Last endemic case Importations during SEP Certification Method Document
ASIA
Afghanistan 1972 1973 30 Nov 1976 International Commission WHO/SE/77.89
Iran* 1963, 1972 1970 7 Dec 1978 Visit and report of WHO-designated expert/consultant WHO/SE/78.132 pp 6-7,21
Iraq** 1959, 1972 1971 17 Apr 1979 International Commission WHO/SE/78.127
Syrian Arab Rep. 1950 1972 22 Oct 1979 International Commission WHO/SE/78.126
Pakistan (West Pakistan) 1974 None post-1974 18 Dec 1976 International Commission WHO/SE/77.90
HORN OF AFRICA
Djibouti (French Territory of Afars and Issas)*** 1959 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974 26 Oct 1979 International Commission WHO/SE/79.147
Ethiopia 1976 None post-1976 26 Oct 1979 International Commission WHO/SE/79.148
Somalia 1962, 1977 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975 26 Oct 1979 International Commission WHO/SE/79.146
Sudan**** 1962, 1972 1967 29 Nov 1978 International Commission WHO/SE/79.134
Yemen Arab Rep. 1969 None post-1969 10 Jun 1979 International Commission WHO/SE/79.139
Yemen, Dem. Rep. 1960 None 11 Jun 1979 International Commission WHO/SE/79.140
ARAB GULF STATES
Bahrain 1957 None 7 Dec 1978 Visit and report of WHO-designated expert/consultant WHO/SE/78.132 pp 6-7,21
Kuwait 1957 1967 7 Dec 1978 Visit and report of WHO-designated expert/consultant WHO/SE/78.132 pp 6-7,21
Oman 1962 1967, 1968 7 Dec 1978 Visit and report of WHO-designated expert/consultant WHO/SE/78.132 pp 6-7,21
Qatar 1961 None 7 Dec 1978 Visit and report of WHO-designated expert/consultant WHO/SE/78.132 pp 6-7,21
Saudi Arabia 1961 1970, 1972 7 Dec 1978 Visit and report of WHO-designated expert/consultant WHO/SE/78.132 pp 6-7,21
United Arab Emirates Never endemic 1967, 1968, 1970, 1971 7 Dec 1978 Visit and report of WHO-designated expert/consultant WHO/SE/78.132 pp 6-7,21

* Iran had last reported cases in 1963, but an importation in 1970 reestablished smallpox. Transmission was interrupted in 1972.

** Iraq had last reported cases in 1959, but an importation in 1971 reestablished smallpox. Transmission was interrupted in 1972.

*** The French Territory of the Afars and Issas was renamed Djibouti in 1977. It experienced periodic importations from Ethiopia but these were controlled by containment vaccination; mass vaccination was conducted every 3 years.

**** Sudan had last reported cases in 1962, but an importation in 1967 reestablished smallpox. Transmission was finally interrupted in 1972.


Ethiopia, Yemen, and Democratic Yemen were all delayed in beginning eradication activities. In Yemen, a plan of operations signed in 1961 was delayed by civil war; a new plan was put into operation in 1969. Democratic Yemen's program began in 1970. Ethiopia did not agree to participate until 1971, 4 years after the global program began.

Somalia had reported its last endemic cases in 1962. However, importations from Ethiopia were frequent because of the shared border through the Ogaden Desert and its nomadic people. Reports of cases received in late September 1976, 7 weeks after the last outbreak in Ethiopia (potentially the last in the world), led to a declaration of a state of emergency by the government and a country-wide case search. Endemic smallpox was discovered throughout southern Somalia, and major epidemics followed.

The Arab countries of the Gulf area (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) had interrupted transmission by the early 1960s, but were subject to importations.


Year Title Authors Source
1961 Smallpox control and eradication Regional Committee for the Eastern Mediterranean. 11th Session, 20 Jun 1961 EM/RC11/5 PDF
1966 Smallpox eradication. [Difficulties encountered] EM/RC16/5 PDF
1968 EMRO Projections: 1968, 1969, 1970
Meeting of Regional Advisers on Smallpox Eradication. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3-10 Apr 1968
DA Henderson personal papers PDF
1970 Status of the smallpox eradication programmes in the Eastern Mediterranean Region
Inter-Regional Seminar on Surveillance and Assessment in Smallpox Eradication, New Delhi, 30 Nov-5 Dec 1970
Shafa E WHO/SE/71.30:24-30 PDF
1979 Joint Report of the International Commissions for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in the Countries of the Horn of Africa Rangaraj AG WHO/SE/79.150 PDF

Afghanistan

Once in Afghanistan

Once in Afghanistan

An all-female Peace Corps team worked in Afghanistan during 1969-70, joining male Afghani vaccinators in the Hindu Kush mountains and the southern desert. Many Afghani women and girls were forbidden to be seen, much less vaccinated, by men not in their families. Their letters, diaries, and photos are archived in the Radcliffe Schlesinger Library. Read the Library's illustrated article about the program and the collection. Team member Jill Vickers and Jody Bergedick (Dirt Road Documentaries) produced the 2002 documentary Once in Afghanistan about the experience.

Year Title Authors Source
SMALLPOX SURVEILLANCE REPORTS
1969 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 19, 7 Mar 1969
Case distribution by age and vaccination status
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 44(10):173-9 PDF
1970 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 51, 18 Dec 1970 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 45(51):558-63 PDF
1971 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 55, 26 Mar 1971
Transmission of smallpox in well-vaccinated populations
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 46(13):122-5 PDF
SMALLPOX ERADICATION PROGRAMME
1968 A study of immunity to smallpox in persons who have experienced a previous attack Vichniakov VE Bull World Health Organ 1968 39(3):433-7 OPEN
1969 An outbreak of smallpox in a village in Afghanistan Rangaraj AG WHO/SE/69.9 PDF
1970 Inter-Regional Seminar on Surveillance and Assessment in Smallpox Eradication. New Delhi, India, 30 Nov - 5 Dec 1970
Smallpox surveillance in Afghanistan Rangaraj AG WHO/SE/71.30:90-91 PDF
Special problems relating to the smallpox eradication programme in Afghanistan Akbary MT WHO/SE/71.30:92-7 PDF
Assessment of the smallpox eradication programme in Afghanistan Salehi MY WHO/SE/71.30:98-102 PDF
1972 Training Seminar on Smallpox Eradication. Karachi, Pakistan, 14-18 November 1972
The problem of variolating relating to the smallpox eradication programme in Afghanistan Rangaraj AG SE/WP/PAK/72.2 PDF
The smallpox eradication programme in Afghanistan Darmanger AM, Rangaraj AG SE/WP/PAK/72.3 PDF
1973 Dead men tell no tales. (An account of a recent smallpox outbreak in Afghanistan) Rangaraj AG WHO/SE/73.59 PDF
1976 Record of interview with a variolator. Jalalabad, Afghanistan, 25 Nov 1976 Henderson DA DA Henderson personal papers PDF
1977 Report of the International Commission for the Assessment of Smallpox Eradication in Afghanistan WHO/SE/77.89 PDF

Bahrain

Year Title Authors Source
1978 Report to the Global Commission for Certification of Smallpox Eradication, Bahrain Min of Health, Bahrain; WHO WHO/SE/78.115 PDF
1978 Report to the Global Commission for Certification of Smallpox Eradication on the smallpox-free status of the Arab countries of the Gulf Area Rangaraj AG WHO/SE/78.121 PDF
1978 Report of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, 1st meeting, 4-7 December 1978 WHO/SE/78.132:6,21 PDF

Djibouti (French Territory of the Afars and Issas)

Year Title Authors Source
SMALLPOX SURVEILLANCE REPORTS
1973 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 98, 16 Nov 1973
Importations Fr. Territory of the Afars and Issas
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 48(46):434-8 PDF
1977 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 137, 7 Oct 1977
Meeting, Nairobi, Kenya, 26-28 Sep 1977: Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 52(40):371-21 PDF
1977 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 138, 9 Dec 1977 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 52(49):389-91 PDF
SMALLPOX ERADICATION PROGRAMME
1970 Contribution of the French Territory of the Afars and Issas (TFAI) to smallpox control in east Africa Courtois D WHO/SE/70.15
Bull World Health Organ 1970 42(4):635-638 [French]
PDF
OPEN
1978 Recommendations of the Third Coordination Meeting for Smallpox Eradication. Nairobi, 17-19 April 1978 [Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Yemen (Dem Rep); Somalia, Yemen Arab Rep could not attend] SME/78.7 PDF
1978 Smallpox eradication in the Republic of Djibouti: Status report, 23 November 1978 SME/78.27 PDF
1978 Smallpox eradication programme in the Republic of Djibouti, 6 November 1977 - 20 December 1977. [Assessment of the present situation and implementation of surveillance activities] Grasset N WHO/SE/78.100 PDF
1979 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, Republic of Djibouti. October 1979 Min of Health, Rep of Djibouti; WHO (Ryst JP) WHO/SE/79.143 PDF
1969 Joint meeting of the International Commissions for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication from the Horn of Africa and the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication. Nairobi, Kenya, Oct 1979
Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Djibouti, 9-18 October 1979 Ministry of Health and WHO WHO/SE/79.147 PDF
Joint Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in the Countries of the Horn of Africa, Nairobi, 26 October 1979 WHO/SE/79.150 PDF

Ethiopia

Year Title Authors Source
HISTORICAL
1965 The history and traditional treatment of smallpox in Ethiopia Pankhurst R Med Hist 1965 9(4):343-55 OPEN
SMALLPOX SURVEILLANCE REPORTS and WER
1971 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 58, 4 Jun 1971 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 46(23):228-33 PDF
1972 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 73, 30 Jun 1972 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 47(26):249-51 PDF
1972 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 76, 18 Aug 1972 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 47(33):313-5 PDF
1972 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 78, 15 Sep 1972 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 47(37):345-7 PDF
1972 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 83, 22 Dec 1972 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 47(51/52):494-6 PDF
1973 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 86, 23 Feb 1973 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 48(8):93-6 PDF
1973 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 88, 30 Mar 1973
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 48(13):143-5 PDF
1973 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 95, 31 Aug 1973 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 48(35):348-50 PDF
1973 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 97, 19 Oct 1973 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 48(42):402-5 PDF
1973 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 99, 14 Dec 1973 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 48(50):475-9 PDF
1974 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 101, 8 Feb 1974 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 49(6):50-1 PDF
1974 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 102, 8 Mar 1974 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 49(10):82-5 PDF
1974 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 103, 11 Apr 1974 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 49(15):126-9 PDF
1974 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 105, 14 Jun 1974 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 49(24):207-10 PDF
1974 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 106, 12 Jul 1974 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 49(28):238-41 PDF
1974 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 111, 13 Dec 1974 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 49(50):414-17 PDF
1975 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 115, 25 Apr 1975 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 50(17):162-6 PDF
1975 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 118, 11 Jul 1975 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 50(28):254-6 PDF
1975 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 120, 19 Sep 1975 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 50(38):325-9 PDF
1975 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 121, 24 Oct 1975 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 50(43):363-6 PDF
1975 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 123, 19 Dec 1975 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 50(51):430-33 PDF
1976 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 125, 20 Feb 1976 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 51(8):61-3 PDF
1976 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 126, 26 Mar 1976 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 51(13):98-9 PDF
1976 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 128, 18 Jun 1976 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 51(25):202-4 PDF
1976 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 129, 30 Jul 1976 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 51(31):245-7 PDF
1976 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 130, 19 Nov 1976 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 51(47):360-2 PDF
1977 WER. Intense surveillance: No cases found. 11 Feb 1977 WHO WER 52(6):63 PDF
1977 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 132, 4 Mar 1977 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 52(9):85-8 PDF
1977 WER> Plan of operations. First Coordination Meeting for Smallpox Eradication. Nairobi, Kenya, 14-16 Mar 1977. [Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan] 1 Apr 1977 WHO WER 1 Apr 1977 52(13):120-1 PDF
1977 WER. Outbreaks. Bale and Hararghe Regions. 3 May 1977 WHO WER 152(19):167 PDF
1977 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 134, 10 Jun 1977 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 52(23):193-5 PDF
1977 WER. Outbreaks update: Bale and Haraghe outbreaks confirmed as chickenpox WHO WER 24 Jun 1977 52(25):211 PDF
1977 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 135, 22 Jul 1977 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 52(29):240-2 PDF
1977 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 137, 7 Oct 1977
Second Coordination Meeting for Smallpox Eradication. Nairobi, Kenya, 26-28 Sep 1977. [Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan]
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 52(40):371-21 PDF
1977 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 138, 9 Dec 1977 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 52(49):389-91 PDF
1978 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 143, 4 Aug 1978
Progress towards certification
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 53(31):229-32 PDF
SMALLPOX ERADICATION PROGRAMME
1972 A report from Gemu-Gofa Province, Ethiopia Tilahun G, Mondaw K, Kraushaar MD, Holmberg MS WHO/SE/72.48 PDF
1973 Active search operations for smallpox: An Ethiopian experience de Quadros CA Weithaler KL Siemon J WHO/SE/73.50
Int J Epidemiol 1973 2(3):237-40)
PDF
1975 An account of operations in Gishe Woreda, Ethiopia Barrashand W, Kaplan L WHO/SE/75.72 PDF
1978 Recommendations of the Third Coordination Meeting for Smallpox Eradication. Nairobi, 17-19 April 1978 [Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Yemen (Dem Rep); Somalia, Yemen Arab Rep could not attend] SME/78.7 PDF
1978 [Recent smallpox epidemics in Ethiopia and Somalia, human monkey pox virus infections and impossibilities of world eradication of the smallpox]. French Merklen FP Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 1978 71(1):11-19
1978 Report on a visit to Ethiopia by Members of the Global Commission for Smallpox Eradication, 31 May - 15 June 1978 Dumbell K, Shrestha P SME/78.11 PDF
1979 Report of the International Commission for Preliminary Assessment of Smallpox Eradication in Ethiopia, 3-18 April 1978 SME/79.6 PDF
1979 Smallpox Eradication in Ethiopia. Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication Min of Health, Ethiopia; WHO (Tekeste Y, Hailu A, do Amaral C Jr, Arbani PR, Khodakevich LN, Ward NA; Wickett J, ed) WHO/SE/79.144 PDF
1979 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Ethiopia, 1-17 October 1979 WHO/SE/79.148 PDF
1979 Joint Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in the Countries of the Horn of Africa, Nairobi, 26 October 1979 WHO/SE/79.150 PDF
2011 Experiences with smallpox eradication in Ethiopia
Symposium: Smallpox Eradication after 30 Years: Lessons, Legacies and Innovations. Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 24-27 Aug 2010
de Quadros CA Vaccine 2011 29(Suppl 4):D30-D35

Iran

Year Title Authors Source
HISTORICAL
1957 The 1954-55 smallpox epidemic in Tabriz Frederiksen H, Motameni ST Am J Trop Med Hyg 1957 6(5):853-7
SMALLPOX ERADICATION PROGRAMME
1971 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 54: 5 Mar 1971
Importations to Iran
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 10:86-91 PDF
1972 Smallpox-like viruses from camels in Iran Baxby D Lancet 1972 300(7786):1063-5
1978 Smallpox eradication in Iran Imperial Min of Health and Welfare, Govt of Iran; WHO WHO/SE/78.120 PDF
1978 The special programme to confirm smallpox eradication in Iran Brilliant LB WHO/SE/78.129 PDF
1978 Report of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, 1st meeting, 4-7 December 1978 WHO/SE/78.132:7,21 PDF

Iraq

Year Title Authors Source
1978 Report to the members of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, Iraq Min of Health, Iraq; WHO WHO/SE/78.114 PDF
1978 Visit report of the members of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, Iraq, 5-15 October 1978 WHO/SE/78.127 PDF

Kuwait

Year Title Authors Source
1967 WER. Outbreak: Source unknown. 5 cases, 2 deaths (40%). First cases reported since 1959 WHO WER 21 Apr 1967 42(16):198 PDF
1967 WER. Outbreak: Update. Traced to nomads. 12 cases, 6 deaths (50%). Actions taken WHO WER 7 May 1967 42(18):219 PDF
1967 WER. Outbreak: Update. 41 cases, 17 deaths (41%) WHO WER 12 May 1967 42(19):229-30 PDF
1967 WER. Outbreak: Update. No new cases. 42 cases, 18 deaths (44%) WHO WER 19 May 1967 42(20):242 PDF
1970 Role of hospital in smallpox outbreak in Kuwait Arita I, Shafa E, Kader A Am J Public Health Nations Health 1970 60(10):1960-6 OPEN
1978 Report to the Global Commission for Certification of Smallpox Eradication, Kuwait Min of Health, Kuwait; WHO WHO/SE/78.119 PDF
1978 Report to the Global Commission for Certification of Smallpox Eradication on the smallpox-free status of the Arab countries of the Gulf Area AG Rangaraj WHO/SE/78.121 PDF
1978 Report of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, 1st meeting, 4-7 December 1978 WHO/SE/78.132:6,21 PDF
1979 Adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination WHO WER 26 Oct 1979 43:330 PDF

Oman

Year Title Authors Source
1967 WER. Importations. Total 5 confirmed, several suspected. First cases reported since 1962 WHO WER 17 Mar 1967 42(11):141-2 PDF
1968 WER. Importation. Illegal immigrant from India WHO WER 15 Mar 1968 43(11):155 PDF
1968 WER. Importation. 2nd importation. Illegal immigrant from India WHO WER 29 Mar 1968 43(13):174 PDF
1978 Report to the Global Commission for Certification of Smallpox Eradication, Oman Min of Health, Oman; WHO WHO/SE/78.117 PDF
1978 Report to the Global Commission for Certification of Smallpox Eradication on the smallpox-free status of the Arab countries of the Gulf Area AG Rangaraj WHO/SE/78.121 PDF
1978 Report of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, 1st meeting, 4-7 December 1978 WHO/SE/78.132:6,21 PDF

Pakistan (West Pakistan)

Year Title Authors Source
SMALLPOX CONTROL BEFORE 1967
1964 The planning, organization and execution of smallpox vaccination campaign in Pakistan Haque NS Smallpox/WP/13 PDF
SMALLPOX SURVEILLANCE REPORTS
1968 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 11, 25 Oct 1968
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 43(43):552-6 PDF
1969 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 19, 7 Mar 1969
Case distribution by age and vaccination status
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 44(10):173-9 PDF
1971 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 63, 1 Oct 1971
Smallpox transmission between villages
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 46(40):412-4 PDF
1971 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 64, 29 Oct 1971 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 46(44):453-8 PDF
NOTE: All Smallpox Surveillance Reports Nos. 83-113 (17 Nov 1972 - 21 Feb 1975) include tables of smallpox incidence in Pakistan by week and district
1973Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 99, 14 Dec 1973Smallpox unit, WHOWER 48(50):475-9PDF
1974Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 101, 8 Feb 1974Smallpox unit, WHOWER 49(6):50-1PDF
1974Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 102, 8 Mar 1974Smallpox unit, WHOWER 49(10):82-5PDF
1974Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 103, 11 Apr 1974Smallpox unit, WHOWER 49(15):126-9PDF
1974Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 105, 14 Jun 1974Smallpox unit, WHOWER 49(24):207-10PDF
1974Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 106, 12 Jul 1974Smallpox unit, WHOWER 49(28):238-41PDF
1974Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 107, 9 Aug 1974Smallpox unit, WHOWER 49(32):271-4PDF
1974Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 108, 6 Sep 1974Smallpox unit, WHOWER 49(36):302-4PDF
1974Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 109, 4 Oct 1974Smallpox unit, WHOWER 49(40):334-7PDF
1974Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 110, 1 Nov 1974Smallpox unit, WHOWER 49(44):365-9PDF
1974Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 111, 13 Dec 1974Smallpox unit, WHOWER 49(50):414-17PDF
1975Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 118, 11 Jul 1975Smallpox unit, WHOWER 50(28):254-6PDF
SMALLPOX ERADICATION PROGRAMME
1969 Transmission of smallpox in endemic areas Heiner GG, Fatima N, Ali A WHO/SE/69.13 PDF
1970 Inter-Regional Seminar on Surveillance and Assessment in Smallpox Eradication, New Delhi, India, 30 Nov-5 Dec 1970
Surveillance activities of the smallpox eradication programme in West Pakistan Khawaja MB WHO/SE/71.30:195-206 PDF
Scar survey in smallpox eradication programme of West Pakistan Khawaja MB, Adibzadeh F SE/WP/70.27 PDF
1971 A study of inapparent infection in smallpox Heiner GG, Fatima N, Daniel RW, Cole JL, Anthony RL, McCrumb FR Jr WHO/SE/71.26
Am J Epidemiol 1971 94(3):252-68
PDF
1971 A study of intrafamilial transmission of smallpox Heiner GG, Fatima N, McCrumb FR Jr WHO/SE/71.33
Am J Epidemiol 1971 94(4):316-326
PDF
1971 Survey of vaccination status and past smallpox experience of an urban population of West Pakistan Ali A, Heiner GG Am J Epidemiol 1971 94(4):327-340
1972 Epidemiology of smallpox in West Pakistan. I. Acquired immunity and the distribution of disease. Mack TM, Thomas DB, Ali A, Muzaffar Khan M Am J Epidemiol 1972 95(2):157-168
1972 Epidemiology of smallpox in West Pakistan. II. Determinants of intravillage spread other than acquired immunity Mack TM, Thomas DB, Muzaffar Khan M Am J Epidemiol 1972 95(2):169-177
1972 Epidemiology of smallpox in West Pakistan. III. Outbreak detection and interlocality transmission. [Republished in Am J Epidemiol 1995 141(6): 490-501. See Invited commentary. DA Henderson. Am J Epidemiol 1995 141(6): 489] Thomas DB, Mack TM, Ali A, Muzaffar Khan M Am J Epidemiol 1972 95(2):178-189
1972 Smallpox transmission on a bus GD Suleimanov, Mandokhel KK WHO/SE/72.41 PDF
1972 Training Seminar on Smallpox Eradication. Karachi, 14-18 Nov 1972
Smallpox eradication project Punjab 1972. Some aspects of smallpox eradication in Lahore Suleimanov GD SE/WP/PAK/72.1 PDF
Smallpox eradication programme Punjab 1972. Three years of experience in Punjab Province Suleimanov GD, Rafique M SE/WP/PAK/72.4 PDF
1976 [Description of an epidemic outbreak of smallpox in Pakistan 1974]. Spanish Gosset Osuna G Rev Invest Salud Publica 1976 35(2):117-29.
1976 Variolation in Punjab
Report for the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Pakistan
Ullah IC PAK/PUN/WP/76.12 PDF
1977 Report of the International Commission for the Assessment of Smallpox Eradication in Pakistan WHO/SE/77.90 PDF
1995Invited commentary on Epidemiology of smallpox in West Pakistan. III. Outbreak detection and interlocality transmission. [Thomas DB, Mack TM, Ali A, Muzaffar Khan M. Am J Epidemiol 1972 95(2):178-189. Republished Am J Epidemiol 1995141(6): 490-501.] Henderson DA.Am J Epidemiol 1995 141(6): 489.

Qatar

Year Title Authors Source
1978 Report to the Global Commission for Certification of Smallpox Eradication, Qatar Min of Health, Qatar; WHO WHO/SE/78.116 PDF
1978 Report to the Global Commission for Certification of Smallpox Eradication on the smallpox-free status of the Arab countries of the Gulf Area AG Rangaraj WHO/SE/78.121 PDF
1978 Report of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, 1st meeting, 4-7 December 1978 WHO/SE/78.132:6,21 PDF

Saudi Arabia

Year Title Authors Source
1970 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 40, 17 Apr 1970
Importation: Saudi Arabia
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 45(16):177-85 PDF
1978 Report to the Global Commission for Certification of Smallpox Eradication, Saudi Arabia Min of Health, Saudi Arabia; WHO WHO/SE/78.122 PDF
1978 Report to the Global Commission for Certification of Smallpox Eradication on the smallpox-free status of the Arab countries of the Gulf Area AG Rangaraj WHO/SE/78.121 PDF
1978 Report of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, 1st meeting, 4-7 December 1978 WHO/SE/78.132:6,21 PDF

Somalia


1981. Smallpox Eradication in Somalia. Ježek Z, Al Aghbari MK, Hatfield R, Deria A (Tulloch J, ed.). Alexandria, WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean and Somali Democratic Republic, Ministry of Health


Year Title Authors Source
SMALLPOX SURVEILLANCE REPORTS and WER
1973 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 98, 16 Nov 1973
Importation: Somalia
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 48(46):434-8 PDF
1976 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 130, 19 Nov 1976
Smallpox and the smallpox programme in Somalia
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 51(47):360-2 PDF
1977 WER. Intense surveillance. No cases detected. 11 Feb 1977 WHO WER 52(6):62-3 PDF
1977 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 132, 4 Mar 1977 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 52(9):85-8 PDF
1977 WER. Plan of operations. First Coordination Meeting for Smallpox Eradication. Nairobi, Kenya, 14-16 Mar 1977. [Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan] 1 Apr 1977 WHO WER 52(13):120-1 PDF
1977 WER. Intense surveillance. 2 cases detected. 1 Apr 1977 WHO WER 52(13):120-1 PDF
1977 WER. Intense surveillance. 13 additional cases detected. 15 Apr 1977 WHO WER 52(15):139 PDF
1977 WER. Intense surveillance. 114 additional cases detected. 13 May 1977 WHO WER 52(19):167 PDF
1977 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 134, 10 Jun 1977 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 52(23):193-5 PDF
1977 WER. Intense surveillance. Total 1567 cases detected since 1 Jan 1977. 24 Jun 1977 WHO WER 52(25):211 PDF
1977 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 135, 22 Jul 1977 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 52(29):240-2 PDF
1977 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 136, 26 Aug 1977 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 52(34):277-9 PDF
1977 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 137, 7 Oct 1977
Meeting, Nairobi, Kenya, 26-28 Sep 1977: Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 52(40):371-21 PDF
1977 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 138, 9 Dec 1977 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 52(49):389-91 PDF
1977 Ali Maow Maalin: Diagnostic specimen form submitted for the world's last case of smallpox, 31 Oct 1977. Dr Karl Markvart PDF
1978Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 143, 4 Aug 1978
Global certification of smallpox eradication. Progress towards certification
Smallpox unit, WHOWER 53(31):229-32PDF
1977 Emergency logistical operation (for containment of the smallpox epidemic in Somalia) Hauge R, Wickett J WHO/SE/77.99 PDF
1978 Recommendations of the Third Coordination Meeting for Smallpox Eradication. Nairobi, 17-19 April 1978 [Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Yemen (Dem Rep); Somalia, Yemen Arab Rep could not attend] SME/78.7 PDF
1978 Operational guidelines for smallpox operations in Somalia SME/78.1 Rev 1 PDF
1978 Plan of action for the Smallpox Eradication Programme in Somalia, 1978-1979 SME/78.3 PDF
1978 Outbreak containment in the Somalia smallpox eradication programme Deria A, Ježek Z, Foster SO WHO/SE/78.104 PDF
1978 [Recent smallpox epidemics in Ethiopia and Somalia, human monkey pox virus infections and impossibilities of world eradication of the smallpox]. French Merklen FP Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 1978 71(1):11-19
1978 Smallpox transmission in an isolated nomadic group Foster SO, Abdulgadir HES, Kamaluddin HA WHO/SE/78.105 PDF
1978 Spread of smallpox among a Somali nomadic group Foster SO, el Sid AG, Deria A Lancet 1978 312(8094):831-3
1978 A smallpox outbreak in Merka town, Somalia WHO/SE/78.123 PDF
1978 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 143, 4 Aug 1978
Progress towards certification
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 53(31):229-32 PDF
1978 Smallpox eradication in Somalia: Status report, 1 Oct 1978 WHO/SE/78.128 PDF
1978 Residual skin changes in patients who have recovered from variola minor Ježek Z, Hardjotanojo W WHO/SE/78.131 PDF
1979 An evaluation of the effectiveness of smallpox surveillance and containment in Somalia Ježek Z, Deria A SME/79.2 PDF
1979 A possible case of camelpox in man Kříž B SME/79.7 PDF
1979 Nomadic population movement in south-western Somalia and its influence on the planning of smallpox surveillance Kříž B, Hatfield R SME/79.12 PDF
1979 Smallpox eradication in Somalia. Report to the International Commission on the Smallpox Eradication Programme in Somalia Min of Health, Somalia (Deria A); WHO (Ježek Z, Al Aghbari MK, Hatfield R, Tulloch J, ed) WHO/SE/79.145 PDF
1979 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in Somalia, 1-21 October 1979 WHO/SE/79.146 PDF
1979 Joint Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in the Countries of the Horn of Africa, Nairobi, 26 October 1979 WHO/SE/79.150 PDF
1980 The world's last endemic case of smallpox: Surveillance and containment measures Deria A, Ježek Z, Markvart K, Carrasco P, Weisfeld J Bull World Health Organ 1980 58(2):279-83 OPEN
1980 An estimation of past smallpox incidence in South-western Somalia Kříž B SME/80.7 PDF
1980 Vehicle maintenance in the smallpox eradication programme in Somalia, 1977-1979 Hatfield R WHO/SE/80.155 PDF
2011 Symposium: Smallpox Eradication after 30 Years: Lessons, Legacies and Innovations. Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 24-27 Aug 2010
The Emergency campaign for smallpox in Somalia (1977-1979): Revisited Deria A Vaccine 2011 29(Suppl 4):D36-D40

Sudan

Year Title Authors Source
HISTORICAL
1974 Smallpox in the Sudan 1925-1964 Bayoumi A East Afr Med J 1974 51(1):131-40
1976 The history and traditional treatment of smallpox in the Sudan Bayoumi A J East Afr Res Dev 1976 1:1-10
SMALLPOX SURVEILLANCE REPORTS and WER
1967 WER. Smallpox case: Source unknown. 21 Aug 1967 WHO WER 42(34):394 PDF
1968Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 9, 27 Sep 1968
Epidemic: Sudan
Smallpox unit, WHOWER 43(39):494-9PDF
1969 WER. Outbreak: Upper Nile Province. 7 cases detected. 31 Jan 1969 WHO WER 44(5):97 PDF
1969 WER. Outbreak: Update. 3 additional cases detected. 7 Feb 1969 WHO WER 44(6):109 PDF
1969 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 18, 21 Feb 1969
Outbreaks in non-endemic countries: Sudan
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 44(8):150-8 PDF
1969 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 29, 15 Aug 1969 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 44(33):497-502 PDF
1970 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 46, 28 Aug 1970
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 45(35):368-72 PDF
1971 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 58, 4 Jun 1971
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 46(23):228-33 PDF
1972 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 73, 30 Jun 1972 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 47(26):249-51 PDF
1972 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 76, 18 Aug 1972 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 47(33):313-5 PDF
1972 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 78, 15 Sep 1972 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 47(37):345-7 PDF
1972 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 83, 22 Dec 1972 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 47(51/52):494-6 PDF
1973 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 86, 23 Feb 1973 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 48(8):93-6 PDF
1973 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 88, 30 Mar 1973 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 48(13):143-5 PDF
1973 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 91, 1 Jun 1973 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 48(22):231-4 PDF
1973 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 95, 31 Aug 1973 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 48(35):348-50 PDF
1977 WER. Plan of operations. First Coordination Meeting for Smallpox Eradication. Nairobi, Kenya, 14-16 Mar 1977. [Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan] 1 Apr 1977 WHO WER 52(13):120-1 PDF
1977 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 137, 7 Oct 1977
Meeting, Nairobi, Kenya, 26-28 Sep 1977: Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 52(40):371-21 PDF
1978 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 143, 4 Aug 1978
Progress towards certification
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 53(31):229-32 PDF
SMALLPOX ERADICATION PROGRAMME
1968 Status of smallpox eradication activities: Sudan
Inter-Country Smallpox Eradication Seminar. Kinshasa, Dem Rep Congo, 19-26 Nov 1968
SE/68.20 PDF
1973 Active search operations: Equatoria Province, Sudan Lepkowski J, Suleiman OHM, Osman AHS WHO/SE/73.60 PDF
1974 The mystery of the smallpox cases in the Lafit Mountains, Equatoria Provinces, Sudan Bassett DC, Kibaida G, Osman AHS WHO/SE/74.67 PDF
1978 The eradication of smallpox in Sudan SME/78.13 PDF
1979 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in the Sudan, 15-29 November 1978 WHO/SE/79.134 PDF
1981 Smallpox in the Sudan Hartwig GW Int J Afr Hist Stud 1981 14(1):5-33

Syrian Arab Republic

Year Title Authors Source
1978 Report to the members of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication Min of Health, Syrian Arab Republic; WHO WHO/SE/78.111 PDF
1978 Visit report of the members of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, Syrian Arab Republic, 15-22 October 1978 WHO/SE/78.126 PDF
1978 Report of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, 1st meeting, 4-7 December 1978 WHO/SE/78.132:7,21 PDF

United Arab Emirates (Trucial Sheikhdoms)

Year Title Authors Source
1971 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 54: 5 Mar 1971
Importations to Trucial Sheikhdoms
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 10:86-91 PDF
1978 Report to the Global Commission for Certification of Smallpox Eradication, United Arab Emirates Min of Health, Saudi Arabia; WHO WHO/SE/78.118 PDF
1978 Report to the Global Commission for Certification of Smallpox Eradication on the smallpox-free status of the Arab countries of the Gulf Area AG Rangaraj WHO/SE/78.121 PDF
1978 Report of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, 1st meeting, 4-7 December 1978 WHO/SE/78.132:6,21 PDF

Yemen Arab Republic

Year Title Authors Source
1978 Recommendations of the Third Coordination Meeting for Smallpox Eradication. Nairobi, 17-19 April 1978 [Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Yemen (Dem Rep); Somalia, Yemen Arab Rep could not attend] SME/78.7 PDF
1978 Smallpox eradication in the Yemen Arab Republic: Status report, November 1978 SME/78.23 PDF
1979 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in the Yemen Arab Republic, June 1979 Min of Health, Yemen Arab Republic; WHO (Steinglass RC) WHO/SE/79.138 PDF
1979 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in the Yemen Arab Republic, 2-10 June 1979 WHO/SE/79.139 PDF

Democratic Republic of Yemen


In Memoriam

Four vaccinators gave their lives when their vehicle struck a land mine in the Third Governate in 1971.

Aysha Karama
Ahmed Nasser Gaber
Taher Abdul Rahim
Mahmood Mohamed Yahya

Their government wrote in its report to the International Commission:

It is hoped that the sacrifice made in their dedication to a commendable national cause will serve to inspire other workers devoted to the health of their nation.


Year Title Authors Source
1978 Recommendations of the Third Coordination Meeting for Smallpox Eradication. Nairobi, 17-19 April 1978 [Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Yemen (Dem Rep); Somalia, Yemen Arab Rep could not attend] SME/78.7 PDF
1978 The Global Commission for Certification of Smallpox Eradication, Status report on the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen WHO/SE/78.125 PDF
1979 Report to the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, April 1979 Min of Public Health, People's Dem Rep of Yemen; WHO WHO/SE/79.136 PDF
1979 Report of the International Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication in the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, 3-11 June 1979 WHO/SE/79.140 PDF