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Handbook for Smallpox Eradication Programmes in Endemic Areas

1967 (1st revision). SEP unit, WHO; SE/67/5 Rev 1

Sections
Full volume 257 pgs [9.7 MB] PDF
Title, Contents, Foreword and Introduction Section I PDF
Smallpox: Clinical and laboratory diagnosis Section II PDF
Vaccination: Technical considerations Section III PDF
Operations Section IV PDF
Education for cooperation Section V PDF
Assessment Section VI PDF
Surveillance Section VII PDF
Smallpox eradication and the general health services Section VIII PDF
Essentials of health legislation Section IX PDF
Administrative support Section X PDF
Areas of particular interest for field research investigation Section XI PDF
Reports to WHO Annex PDF

Organization

Year Title Authors Source
1959 Organization of a smallpox eradication service WHO/Smallpox/10 PDF
– Compulsory or voluntary vaccination WHO Secretariat A13/Technical Discussions/2
– Eradication vs control of smallpox Frederiksen H SEA/SPX/Conf 5
– Educational aspects of smallpox eradication campaign Ramakrishna V SEA/SPX/Conf 9
– Organization of a smallpox eradication service Arasteh C SEA/SPX/Conf 10
1960 f. International aspects of smallpox eradication WHO Secretariat WHO/Smallpox/14 PDF
1960 g. Evaluation of smallpox vaccination programs. [English version: Incomplete; French version: Complete] Cruickshank R WHO/Smallpox/15 English PDF
1964 WHO Expert Committee on Smallpox, Geneva, 14-20 January 1964
International certificate of vaccination or revaccination against smallpox WHO Secretariat Smallpox/WP/6 PDF
Measures to be taken in case of outbreaks in countries free from smallpox Polak MF Smallpox/WP/8 PDF
Criterion for smallpox eradication WHO Secretariat Smallpox/WP/11 PDF
1964 Organization of a smallpox eradication campaign WHO Secretariat WHO/Smallpox/20 PDF
1964 Letter to Dr W Charles Cockburn, 22 Dec 1964. DA Henderson PDF
NOTE: Dr Cockburn was head of the WHO Virus diseases unit, Division of Communicable Diseases. Henderson (Chief, Surveillance section, Epidemiology branch, CDC) expressed regret that CDC, with its work on smallpox, was not included in the WHO committee tasked to write a report on smallpox eradication for the 1965 World Health Assembly. He detailed several points that "merit[ed] discussion", including research, surveillance, quality vaccine, and the tailoring of programs to area needs. Henderson was subsequently given a 3-month consultancy with WHO.
1966 Letter Dr Benjamin D Blood, 5 Jan 1966. DA Henderson PDF
Dr Blood was Acting Chief of the Office of International Health, US Public Health Service, and a former US delegate to the World Health Assembly. Henderson (Acting Director, Smallpox UNIT, CDC) expressed concerns about the adequacy of the funds and staffing proposed in the Director-General's report to the Executive Board EB 37/23 for the WHO global Smallpox Eradication Programme.
1966 Global eradication of smallpox. International Congress for Microbiology, Moscow, July 1966 K Raška SE/66.2 PDF

Surveillance and Containment

handbook

Principles and procedures:

Surveillance (Section VII)
In: Handbook for Smallpox Eradication Programmes in Endemic Areas (1st revision)
SEP unit, WHO. 1967. SE/67/5 Rev 1 PDF

Surveillance-containment operations: Principles and operational procedures
SEP unit, WHO. 1969, SE/69.1 PDF

Smallpox.
Manuscript submitted for Rosenau, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 10th ed. Henderson DA. 1971, WHO/SE/71.28PDF

Year Title Authors Source
1966 Preliminary notes on epidemiological surveillance in smallpox eradication programmes in endemic countries SEP unit, WHO SE/66.3 PDF
1968 Background document
Technical Discussions on National and Global Surveillance of Communicable Diseases, 21st World Health Assembly, 6-24 May 1968
Epidemiological Surveillance unit; Langmuir AD. А21/Technical Discussions/1 PDF
1968 Report of the Technical Discussions on National and Global Surveillance of Communicable Diseases
21st World Health Assembly, 6-24 May 1968
А21/Technical Discussions/5 PDF
1968 Surveillance: The key to smallpox eradication.
WHO Inter-Regional Course on Methods of Epidemiological Surveillance, Prague, Czechoslovakia, Aug 1968
Henderson DA WHO/SE/68.2 PDF
[Note: On 20 Aug 1968, the night before the conference began, the USSR invaded Czechoslovakia. See Henderson's first-hand account One day in Prague.] PDF
1969 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 23, 2 May 1969
Smallpox surveillance and containment programme, Western and Central Africa: Strategy
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 1969 44(18):297-303 PDF
1969 "Negative" epidemiological enquiries within the framework of the smallpox eradication programme Glokpor GF WHO/SE/69.12 PDF
1969 Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Results of investigation and control programme in Sierra LeoneCummings EC, Hopkins DR, Thornton JNCDC, SEP Report IV(1):41-4PDF
Use of house-to-house surveys in finding smallpox casesAgle ANCDC, SEP Report IV(1):45-6PDF
Smallpox surveillance in the strategy of global eradication Henderson DA CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):46-52 PDF
The value of surveillance newsletters Smith EA, Foster SO CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):53-7 PDF
The surveillance system and methods used to improve reporting, I. Togo Agbodjan LP CDC, SEP Report IV(2):58-9 PDF
The surveillance system and methods used to improve reporting, II. Dahomey Yekpe M CDC, SEP Report IV(2):60-2 PDF
The surveillance system and methods used to improve reporting, III. Niger Alzouma I CDC, SEP Report IV(2):63-5 PDF
Surveillance techniques for detecting importations of smallpox Grant FC CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):66-8 PDF
Assessment of surveillance systems in West Africa Henderson RH CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):69-72 PDF
Summary: Surveillance Henderson DA CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):73-4 PDF
Experiences in Upper Volta with intercountry coordination of containment activities d'Amanda C CDC, SEP Report IV(2):80-1 PDF
Smallpox eradication in Africa: Principles for action in the maintenance phaseBinson BCDC, SEP Report IV(2):177-80PDF
Maintenance of smallpox immunity among the nomadsAlzouma ICDC, SEP Report IV(2):181-2PDF
Investigation of imported cases during the Smallpox Eradication Programme in CameroonDelas ACDC, SEP Report IV(2):183-7PDF
Summary: Maintenancce programmesMillar JDCDC, SEP Report IV(2):188-9PDF
1970 Inter-Regional Seminar on Surveillance and Assessment in Smallpox Eradication. New Delhi, India, 30 Nov - 5 Dec 1970
Surveillance in the Brazilian smallpox eradication programme, 1970 de Faria GB, de Carvalho Filho EC, Rodrigues BA, Ponce de Leon J WHO/SE/71.30:60-70 PDF
Smallpox surveillance in Afghanistan Rangaraj AG WHO/SE/71.30:80-91 PDF
Surveillance of smallpox in East Pakistan Markvart K, Huq AMM, Islam AIMS WHO/SE/71.30:182-94 PDF
Surveillance activities of the Smallpox Eradication Programme in West Pakistan Khawaja MB, Adibzadeh F WHO/SE/71.30:195-206 PDF
Teaching exercise. Field investigation. Problem for students; Syllabus for the discussion leadersSE/WP/70.31PDF
1971Teaching exercise. Field investigation of a smallpox case: Problem for students; Syllabus for the discussion leaders [Includes color photographs]SE/71.1PDF
1971 Development of the smallpox surveillance programme in Andhra Pradesh Apparao MC WHO/SE/71.27 PDF
1972 Inter-Country Seminar on Surveillance in Smallpox Eradication. New Delhi, India, 30 Oct - 2 Nov 1972
Tracing of the source of infectionSingh ISE/WP/72.5PDF
Conquest of smallpox in Maharashtra State: Containment and followup measures; failures and achievements Aphale RV SE/WP/72.9 PDF
Use of surveillance teams in Rajasthan Aggarwal ML, Jagdev DK, Monnier A SE/WP/72.10 PDF
The use of surveillance teams in Bangladesh Huq AMM, Kashem JA SE/WP/72.15 PDF
Development of a reporting system in Uttar PradeshDube RDSE/WP/72.16PDF
Consequences of poor reporting: An experience encountered in Gulbarga District, Mysore State, South IndiaRao RRSE/WP/72.19PDF
1972 Teaching exercise: Smallpox surveillance; syllabus for the discussion leaders SE/72.7 PDF
1972 Smallpox surveillance in the strategy of global eradication Henderson DA SE/72.8 PDF
1974 International Assessment of Smallpox Eradication in Indonesia, 15-26 Apr 1974
Indonesia 1972: Some smallpox surveillance patterns Cuboni GGO, Emmet W, Rai NK, Karyadi A, Setiady IF WHO/SE/74.63 PDF
Indonesia 1971/72: Smallpox vaccinators as surveillance workers Cuboni GGO, Emmet W, Koswara PA, Rai NK, Karyadi A, Setiady IF WHO/SE/74.66 PDF
1974A field day for smallpox in Sibpur, BangladeshRangaraj AG, Yusuf MAWHO/SE/74.65PDF
1974 The 1972 smallpox outbreak in Khulna Municipality, Bangladesh. II. Effectiveness of surveillance and containment in urban epidemic control Sommer A SE/74.1
Am J Epidemiol 1974 99(4):303-313
PDF
1975 Surveillance of smallpox Henderson DA WHO/SE/75.76 PDF
1975Smallpox outbreak field form: Aurangabad District, Bihar State, India. Completed 17 Jan 1975Field investigation teamDA Henderson personal papers PDF
1975Map of cases in Bhola Island village: Location of the last case of smallpox in Bangladesh and Asia. Oct 1975Bangladesh field teamDA Henderson personal papers PDF
1976 Smallpox surveillance in remote and inaccessible areas of India Ježek Z, Arora RR, Arya ZS, Hussain Z WHO/SE/76.79
Indian J Public Health 1978 22(1):56-62
PDF
1976Freedom from smallpox. Case histories on four countries where cases were missed for extended periods [Brazil, Botswana, Indonesia, Nigeria]Henderson DAWHO/SE/76.85PDF
1976 The impact of city surveillance teams in Bangladesh during the smallpox eradication campaign Vetter NJ, Mehta H, Tarantola D Int J Epidemiol 1976 5(4):353-7
1977 Surveillance at weekly markets in the smallpox eradication programme in India Basu RN, Khodakevich LN WHO/SE/77.94
Indian J Public Health 1978 22(1):44-9
PDF
1977 Emergency logistical operation (for containment of the smallpox epidemic in Somalia) Hauge R, Wickett J WHO/SE/77.99 PDF
1978 Smallpox pock mark survey in Bangladesh, with an assessment of reporting efficiency Hughes K, Foster SO, Tarantola D, Joarder AK WHO/SE/78.102 PDF
1978 Outbreak containment in the Somalia smallpox eradication programme Deria A, Ježek Z, Foster SO WHO/SE/78.104 PDF
1978Fever with rash surveillance in IndiaJežek Z, Basu RN, Arya ZS, Gupta MIndian J Public Health 1978 22(2):120-6
1978Surveillance among the pavement dwellers in Calcutta and HowrathRoy GC, Ghosh NCIndian J Public Health 1978 22(2):127-33
1979 Nomadic population movement in south-western Somalia and its influence on the planning of smallpox surveillance Kříž B, Hatfield R SME/79.12 PDF
1979 An evaluation of the effectiveness of smallpox surveillance and containment in Somalia Ježek Z, Deria A SME/79.2 PDF
1980 The world's last endemic case of smallpox: Surveillance and containment measures Deria A, Ježek Z, Markvart K, Carrasco P, Weisfeld J Bull World Health Organ 1980 58(2):279-83 OPEN
1980 Smallpox surveillance in Bangladesh: I - Development of surveillance containment strategy Foster SO, Ward NA, Joarder AK, Arnt N, Tarantola D, Rahman M, Hughes K Int J Epidemiol 1980 9(4):329-34
1980 Smallpox surveillance in Bangladesh: II - Smallpox facial scar survey assessment of surveillance effectiveness Hughes K, Foster SO, Tarantola D, Mehta H, Tulloch JL, Joarder AK Int J Epidemiol 1980 9(4):335-40
1983 Smallpox eradication surveillance
7th general programme of work covering the period 1984-1989
WHO Secretariat SME/MTP/83.1 PDF
2005 Surveillance systems and intergovernmental cooperation
Conference on Emerging Viruses, Washington DC
Henderson DA PDF
2016 The development of surveillance systems. Henderson DA Am J Epidemiol 2016 183(5): 381-386. OPEN

Assessment

handbook

Principles and procedures:

Assessment (Section VI)
In: Handbook for Smallpox Eradication Programmes in Endemic Areas (1st revision)
SEP unit, WHO. 1967. SE/67/5 Rev 1 PDF

Assessment of the vaccination component of the programme
Inter-Regional Seminar on Surveillance and Assessment in Smallpox Eradication, New Delhi, India, 30 Nov-5 Dec 1970. SEP unit, WHO. SE/WP/70.25 PDF

Year Title Authors Source
1964Assessment and evaluation of the national smallpox eradication programme in different parts of India
WHO Expert Committee on Smallpox. Geneva, Switzerland, 14-20 Jan 1964
Lal KMSmallpox/WP/26PDF
1967Smallpox Surveillance Report Draft 2 Dec 1967. (Prepared but not distributed)
A pilot assessment project—Kano, Nigeria
Smith EA, Adeoye PO, Jones CJSE/SR/67.2:14-7PDF
1967Smallpox Surveillance Report Draft 2 Dec 1967. (Prepared but not distributed)
Assessment by market surveys: Upper Volta, Ivory Coast
CDCSE/SR/67.2:18-9PDF
1967Smallpox Surveillance Report Draft 2 Dec 1967. (Prepared but not distributed)
Assessment survey—Laos
Phetsiriseng T, Falkland SSE/SR/67.2:20-1PDF
1968Instructions and sample data form for field assessment
Inter-Country Smallpox Eradication Seminar. Kinshasa, Dem Rep Congo, 19-26 Nov 1968
SE/68.16, SE/68.17PDF
1969Instructions and sample data form for field assessmentSE/69.3PDF
1969Assessment of Phase I of the smallpox eradication/measles control program of Niger. Jan 1969 Henderson RHCDC #21414PDF
1969Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 23, 2 May 1969
Strategy of the smallpox surveillance and containment programme, Western and Central Africa
Smallpox unit, WHOWER 1969 44(18):297-303PDF
1969Joint WHO/CDC/USAID Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Principles of assessmentHenderson RHSEP Report IV(2):86-9PDF
Concurrent assessment during the smallpox eradication/measles control programme in Guinea - December 1967 through February 1969Alecaut B, Breman JG, Famba MKSEP Report IV(2):90-6PDF
Concurrent assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Programme in Mid-West State, NigeriaMebitaghan IS, Okoh PASEP Report IV(2):97-102PDF
Assessment in the Central African RepublicEwen NSEP Report IV(2):103-8PDF
Assessment of vaccination coverage and smallpox in five areas of West Africa. A summary of terminal assessment resultsHenderson RH, Davis H, Eddins DSEP Report IV(2):109-32PDF
Summary: Concurrent assessmentMillar JDSEP Report IV(2):133-5PDF
1970Inter-Regional Seminar on Surveillance and Assessment in Smallpox Eradication. New Delhi, India, 30 Nov - 5 Dec 1970
– Assessment of the smallpox vaccination program in AfghanistanSalehi MYWHO/SE/71.30:98-102PDF
Scar surveys as a tool for evaluation and supervision of the smallpox eradication programme, East Java Province, IndonesiaWitjaksono HSE/WP/70.26PDF
Scar survey in smallpox eradication programme of West PakistanKhawaja MB, Adibzadeh FSE/WP/70.27PDF
1971Survey of vaccination status and past smallpox experience of an urban population of West PakistanAli A, Heiner GGAm J Epidemiol 1971 94(4):327-340
1972Inter-Country Seminar on Surveillance in Smallpox Eradication. New Delhi, India, 30 Oct - 2 Nov 1972
"Encourage and appreciate immediate reporting of smallpox": Methods to determine the efficacy of the programmeAhuja ASSE/WP/72.3PDF
Methods to ascertain the smallpox transmission in an area has been interruptedVerma SDSE/WP/72.4PDF
1972 Persistence of facial scars of smallpox in West African populations Foster SO WHO/SE/72.34 PDF
1972Report on a survey to determine the status of smallpox and levels of smallpox immunity
[Argentina]
Hiriart JJ, da Silveira CMWHO/SE/72.37PDF
1972Paraguay: report on a survey to determine the status of smallpox and levels of smallpox immunityWHO/SE/72.38PDF
1972Assessment of smallpox immunity status in Haryana state by scar survey 1970Chopra RL, Mehta JNIndian J Public Health 1972 16(3):123-30
1973Assessment of vaccination coverage, vaccination scar rates, and smallpox scarring in five areas of West AfricaHenderson RH, Davis H, Eddins DL, Foege WHBull World Health Organ 1973 48(2):183-94OPEN
1975Summary of the report of the Committee for Assessment of National Smallpox Eradication Programme
[India]
NIHAE Bull 1975 8(2):136-7
1976Assessment of Ladakh smallpox eradication programme activitiesJežek Z, Kanth MHWHO/SE/76.81PDF
1977The National Commission for Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Programme in IndiaBasu RN, Khodakevich LNWHO/SE/77.95
Indian J Public Health 1978 22(1):16-30
PDF
1977Reinvestigation of smallpox outbreaksJežek Z, Basu RN, Arya ZSWHO/SE/77.96PDF
1977 Problem of persistence of facial pockmarks among smallpox patients Ježek Z, Basu RN, Arya ZS WHO/SE/77.97 PDF
1978Smallpox pock mark survey in Bangladesh, with an assessment of reporting efficiencyHughes K, Foster SO, Tarantola D, Joarder AKWHO/SE/78.102PDF
1978[Global program for eliminating smallpox. IV. Chief stages, organizational principles and assessment of the global program for smallpox elimination]. RussianLadnyi IDZh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1978 (7):38-44

Cooperation and Coordination

handbook

Principles and procedures:

Education for cooperation (Section V)
Smallpox eradication and the general health services (Section VIII)
Essentials of health legislation (Section IX)
In: Handbook for Smallpox Eradication Programmes in Endemic Areas (1st revision)
SEP unit, WHO. 1967. SE/67/5 Rev 1 PDF

Year Title Authors Source
1960 Inter-Regional Smallpox Conference. New Delhi, India, 14-19 November 1960
International aspects of smallpox eradicationWHOWHO/Smallpox/14PDF
– Co-ordination of smallpox eradication campaign with other campaigns and with the general activities of the public health service Chandravimol P SEA/SPX/Conf 7
1966Observations on inter-relationships between smallpox eradication and public health servicesSE/66.1PDF
1969 Joint WHO/USAID/CDC Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
Intercountry cooperation and coordination. An overview Lythcott GI CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):76-7 PDF
Proposals for intercountry coordination. Tchellé L CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):78-9 PDF
Experiences in Upper Volta with intercountry coordination of containment activities d'Amanda C CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):80-1 PDF
Benefits of intercountry coordination Agle CDC, SEP Report 1970 IV(2):82 PDF
Advantages and disadvantages of specialized and multi-purpose medical teamsRoux JMCDC, SEP Report IV(2):208-12PDF
1970The efficacy and acceptability of the bifurcated needle technique: A summary of studies conducted in IndiaWHO/SE/70.16PDF
1970International cooperation in the smallpox eradication programme
Inter-Regional Seminar on Surveillance and Assessment in Smallpox Eradication. New Delhi, India, 30 Nov - 5 Dec 1970
Thaung U, Myat UAWHO/SE/71.30:104-7PDF
1972Inter-Country Seminar on Surveillance in Smallpox Eradication. New Delhi, India, 30 Oct - 2 Nov 1972
"Encourage and appreciate immediate reporting of smallpox": Methods to determine the efficacy of the programmeAhuja ASSE/WP/72.3PDF
Cross notification in smallpox eradication
Rao MCASE/WP/72.20PDF
1973Attitudes and knowledge about smallpox immunization among mothersGulati PV, Amar SIndian J Pediatr 1973 40(9):312-6
1975Parental knowledge and attitude to smallpox vaccination in a rural community of south IndiaRao DCIndian J Pediatr 1975 42(2):46-51
1977Summary of the contributions of the smallpox programme to other health programmes through surveys in BangladeshWHO/SE/77.91PDF

Operations and Logistics

handbook

Principles and procedures:

Operations (Section IV)
Administrative Support (Section X)
In: Handbook for Smallpox Eradication Programmes in Endemic Areas (1st revision)
SEP unit, WHO. 1967. SE/67/5 Rev 1 PDF

Year Title Authors Source
1969 Joint WHO/CDC/USAID Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969
The value, efficiency, and limitations of collecting points in mass vaccination programmesSmith EA, Foster SO, Adetosoye JI, Mebitaghan IS, Adeoye PO, Pifer JMCDC, SEP Report IV(2):199-204PDF
Advantages and disadvantages of specialized and multi-purpose medical teamsRoux JMCDC, SEP Report IV(2):208-12PDF
A review of West African operations: Methods and tacticsHicks JWCDC, SEP Report IV(2):192-8PDF
Associated vaccine campaigns. Organization and logisticsLabusquière RCDC, SEP Report IV(2):216-20PDF
Summary: Programme operationsHenderson DACDC, SEP Report IV(2):224-5PDF
1980 Vehicle maintenance in the smallpox eradication programme in Somalia, 1977-1979 Hatfield R WHO/SE/80.155 PDF