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* Smallpox Eradication Program — WHO seminars and meetings on smallpox eradication, 1967-1978 (excluding those associated with certification of eradication). Participants included national programme staff and WHO smallpox advisers and other smallpox eradication staff from the regional offices and WHO Headquarters. Advisers from the regional offices in the 4 endemic regions were invited to all meetings from 1967 to 1970 and to the 1972 meeting in India.
1948. Summary report on the 2nd session of the Joint OIHP-WHO Study Group on Smallpox. WHO/Smallpox/1.
[Characters of the viruses of the smallpox group; Laboratory methods for the diagnosis of smallpox; Contagiousness of smallpox in the pre-eruptive stage; Vaccination; Vaccination against smallpox and yellow fever]
Report on the [Peru] smallpox vaccination campaign carried out during the period October 1950 - December 1955. WHO/Smallpox/12.
[A de la Fuente E]
Report of the African Conference on Smallpox Eradication. WHO/Smallpox/11.
List of participants. WHO/Smallpox/17 Annex I.
Programme of work. WHO/Smallpox/17 Annex III.
Epidemiological considerations of smallpox control. SEA/SPX/Conf 3.
Report on the smallpox vaccination campaign carried out during the period October 1950 - December 1955. WHO/Smallpox/12.
[A de la Fuente E; Paper presented at the Seminar on Smallpox Vaccination, Lima, Peru, 20-25 August 1956]
Smallpox in India as assessed from the incidence of reported smallpox cases per 100,000 population by districts. SEA/SPX/Conf 8
Organization of a smallpox eradication service. SEA/SPX/Conf 10.
Local and social aspects of the smallpox eradication campaign. SEA/SPX/Conf 4.
Educational aspects of the smallpox eradication campaign. SEA/SPX/Conf 9.
Eradication vs control of smallpox. SEA/SPX/Conf 5.
Evaluation of smallpox vaccination programs [Evaluation des programmes de vaccination antivariolique]. WHO/Smallpox/15 and SEA/SPX/Conf 15 (not found). [English version is incomplete; French version is complete]
Smallpox vaccine and vaccination technique. SEA/SPX/Conf 6.
Co-ordination of smallpox eradication campaign with other campaigns and with the general activities of the public health service. SEA/SPX/Conf 7.
International aspects of smallpox eradication. WHO/Smallpox/14.
Report of the Inter-Regional Smallpox Conference. WHO/Smallpox/17.
Freeze-dried smallpox vaccine production. WHO/Smallpox/16.
Freeze-dried smallpox vaccine production. WHO/Smallpox/18.
1964. Draft agenda. Smallpox/WP/1.
1964. WHO Expert Committee on Smallpox. First Report.. Technical Report Series No. 283.
Review of smallpox situation in the world
1964. Review of smallpox situation in the world. Smallpox/WP/12.
1964. Factors involved in transmission of smallpox and duration of immunity. Smallpox/WP/7.
1964. A study of 240 cases of haemorrhagic smallpox. Smallpox/WP/22.
1964. Correlation between antibody levels and vaccination reaction. Smallpox/WP/15.
1964. Comparative study of the virus neutralising antibody levels and types of skin reaction in smallpox revaccinated persons. Smallpox/WP/25.
[IA Svet-Moldavskaya, SS Marennikova, EM Akatova-Shelukhina, ZI Ogorodnikova; Expert Committee on Smallpox, Geneva, 14-20 January 1964]
1964. The relation between potency of vaccine used in smallpox vaccination and immunity produced. Smallpox/WP/9.
1964. Immunity in relation to the number of insertions. Smallpox/WP/21.
1964. Laboratory aspects. Smallpox/WP/2.
1964. Bleeding and coagulation studies in smallpox and chicken-pox, Madras, India, 1962-63. Smallpox/WP/5.
1964. The viruses of variola major, variola minor and atypical strains. Smallpox/WP/14.
1964. Smallpox vaccines. Smallpox/WP/10.
[C Kaplan; Expert Committee on Smallpox, Geneva, 14-20 January 1964]
1964. A comparison of vaccinia virus strains used for production in various countries. Smallpox/WP/16.
[SS Marennikova, NN Nal'ceva]
1964. The composition of genetically heterogeneous smallpox vaccines and methods of purifying them. Smallpox/WP/23.
[SS Marennikova, JZ Genden, NN Nal'ceva, FB Genkins, VI Čornos]
Chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy
1964. Chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy. Smallpox/WP/3.
[AW Downie, CH Kempe]
1964. The use of vaccinia hyperimmune gamma-globulin in the prophylaxis of smallpox. Smallpox/WP/4.
1964. Hyperimmune antivaccinia gamma globulin from animal sera. Smallpox/WP/24.
[SS Marennikova, EM Akatova-Shelukhina, NN Maltseva, PB Ghenkina, VN Milushkin, FL Miniovich]
1964. Criterion for smallpox eradication. Smallpox/WP/11.
1964. The planning, organization and execution of smallpox vaccination campaign in Pakistan. Smallpox/WP/13.
1964. Planning, organization and execution of national smallpox eradication campaign in India. Smallpox/WP/19.
1964. Assessment and evaluation of the national smallpox eradication programme in different parts of India. Smallpox/WP/26.
1964. Smallpox eradication programme in Ghana. Smallpox/WP/20.
1964. Measures to be taken in case of outbreaks in countries free from smallpox. Smallpox/WP/8.
1964. International certificate of vaccination or revaccination against smallpox. Smallpox/WP/6.
First seminar of the SEP; 13 countries of South·East Asia, Eastern Mediterranean, and Western Pacific Regions
All documents listed below:
A 1967 WHO survey of vaccine produced by 20 laboratories in as many countries concluded that not more than 10% of the vaccine used in endemic countries met WHO requirements. WHO's usual practice would have been to have a well-qualified consultant visit and advise the substandard vaccine producers. In this case, the need to simultaneously improve vaccine production at some 20 substandard laboratories would tax both the available consultants and the SEP's resources. Thus the Smallpox Eradication unit concluded that, to improve vaccine production rapidly, it would prepare a manual on the production of freeze-dried smallpox vaccine. It would describe the simplest possible procedures for all stages of production and testing of a potent, stable and safe vaccine.
List of participants and working papers. SE/68.3 Rev.2 Appendix 19
The resulting manual, Methodology of Freeze-dried Smallpox Vaccine Production (SE/68.3 Rev.2), was the first to describe simple and practical methods for the production and testing of freeze-dried vaccine. It contained a level of detail not provided elsewhere and was made widely available as a document of the Smallpox Eradication unit, being distributed to all laboratories interested in the production of vaccine.
11 countries of southern and eastern Africa
18 countries of western and central Africa
Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969. Proceedings - Part I
The SEP Report, Volume IV, Number 1. [10.5 MB]
Seminar on Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control in Western and Central Africa. Lagos, Nigeria, 13-20 May 1969. Proceedings - Part II.
The SEP Report, Volume IV, Number 2. [17.9 MB]
Status of smallpox eradication activities:
11 countries of Eastern Mediterranean and South-East Asia Regions
Design for immunization programs in the developing countries. Report of Committee 2.
[DA Henderson (chair), R Labusquière, JD Millar, PJ N'Dow, CC Nicholson, M Rey, C Ristori, J Sulianti-Saroso]
4 countries of eastern Africa
Potency and stability characteristics of smallpox vaccine used in the smallpox eradication programme in Western and West-central Africa. WHO/SE/72.49.
[A Bernstein, MZ Bierly Jr. Also published in RH Regamey, H Cohen (eds). Symp Series Immunobiol Stand 19:157-165. 1973]
5 countries of South-East Asia Region
4 countries of Eastern Mediterranean Region
Ethiopia and WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region smallpox eradication advisers
Pakistan and WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region smallpox eradication advisers
Bangladesh, India and Nepal
6 countries of South-East Asia Region
4 countries of eastern Africa
5 countries of eastern Africa
5 countries of eastern Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean Region